Cornwall was settled by Man in the dawn of history. The many prehistoric remains show that Bronze Age man was here in large numbers, followed by Iron Age man. Pressure from the east by the Romans and Saxons who in turn occupied the southern part of our island led to the emigration of many of the original Brythonic-speaking people from what is now England first of all to Cornwall and then across to Armorica (roughly corresponding to modern Brittany).
This was the period of conversion to Christianity and the legacy it left behind was a large number of local saints, whose memory survives in village names and in church dedications. These saints do not appear on the official list of saints and were usually local Christian leaders who had converted the particular district. These saints names are not usually found outside Cornwall. This is also the period of King Arthur.
Meanwhile, the Saxons prepared to attack the "West Welsh", as the Cornish were then known. This happened under Egbert in 815 and by 825 West Wales was overrun after the Cornish had been defeated at Camelford. The Danish raids gave the Cornishmen an opportunity to revolt and they did so in 836, assisted by their Danish allies. But they were crushed on Hingston Down, a high ridge of country north-east of Callington, in 838. Athelstan fixed the eastern boundary of Cornwall on the Tamar in 936 and gave the large majority of the land holdings to English landowners.
The Norman Conquest led to a change of masters for the Cornish. Most of the manors were assigned to Robert de Mortain and an Earldom was created which was usually held by the eldest son of the King. In 1337 this Earldom became a Dukedom, the oldest in the country, and the title of Duke of Cornwall was automatically conferred upon the King's eldest son. The Tinners Charter is granted by Edward 1.
Cornwall supported the Lancastrians in the Wars of the Roses and for about a century afterwards it remained a centre of disaffection as it was so far from the capital. There were two rebellions in 1497 under Thomas Flamank and Perkin Warbeck, respectively and another in 1549 led by Humphrey Arundell. Cornwall was strongly Royalist in the Civil War, and the local Parliamentarian forces were roundly defeated at Braddock Down east of Lostwithiel and at Stratton just outside Bude in 1643. The Earl of Essex invaded Royalist Cornwall in August 1644 and this led to a particularly bloody campaign round Fowey and Lostwithiel. Cornwall was not finally occupied by the Parliamentarian forces until the end of the war.
At one time Cornwall boasted 2,000 tin mines and it was a world leader in tin production. Foreign competition was to change all that. Competitors overseas were producing ores far more cheaply than Cornwall. Prices for tin plummeted and dropped below the cost of production. Within half a century of the tin boom of 1870-1872, the mining industry was almost dead in the face of foreign competition. Two of the last remaining mines were Levant and Geevor, both near St. Just, which are now open as tourist attractions. But just has the mines were closing the China Clay Industry took its place.
Most of the subsequent history of Cornwall has been peaceful - it was an important Methodist centre in the 18th century. Wesley Cottage and Gwennap Pit can still be visited. Around the same time the tourist industry came into being. Visitors were attracted by the mild climate - in small numbers at first, but then the fashion spread and more and more began arriving in Cornwall from all parts of the country. The railway came in 1859 and the Royal Albert Bridge built by Brunel at Saltash formed a link between Cornwall and the outside world.
In the years between the two World Wars the motor-car gained in popularity and traffic increased rapidly. But still the motorist had to choose between the Plymouth ferries or roads north of the Tamar estuary. The Second World War in 1939 brought bombing to Cornwall, especially in the extreme south-east of the county. The years after the war saw the stream of motor traffic become a flood. At last a road bridge was built across the River Tamar at Saltash, which was opened in 1961 - 102 years after the railway bridge. In 1962 a Satellite Tracking Station was built at Goonhilly Downs on the Lizard Peninsula and pictures were received by the satellite Telstar from the United States. Tourists from other countries began to visit Cornwall in increasing numbers and today the future for Cornwall as a holiday area is bright.
|200 to 1 million years ago||PREHISTORY
The granite areas were formed and weathered down to more like we see today. The dinosaurs came and went and flowering plants evolved, the climate was tropical and dominated by monsoons. Later during the Ice Ages the rotten rock was further broken up and washed down to lower areas to form soils, minerals and china clay. Ancestors of modern humans visited Cornwall for the first time. Cornwall is too far south to be under the ice sheet, and is joined to Continental Europe.
|400,000 - 200,000 BC||PALAEOLITHIC (EARLY STONE AGE)
From 400,000 BC to 200,000 BC, the archaeological record (ie. flint axes and blades) shows us that people, that were probably settled in Devon, were beginning to make periodic visits into Cornwall. By 40,000 BC (The Upper Palaeolithic) these modern humans have spread throughout the South West, but there is still no evidence of settlements in Cornwall at this time (as yet). Cornwall's landscape is similar to modern Arctic Tundra and The Isles of Scilly are still linked to the mainland.
|10,000 BC||MESOLITHIC (MIDDLE STONE AGE)
This period begins at the end of the last glacial period, when water levels began to rise cutting Cornwall off from the Continent as the Channel floods, and hunter-gatherer bands begin to settle around the coastlines of Cornwall, around the Lizard, for example, and have working sites on upland areas, such as Bodmin Moor as the lower areas would have been tree covered. The Isles of Scilly are cut off from the mainland and most of Cornwall is covered with oak and hazel woodland.
|4,000 - 2,400 BC||NEOLITHIC (NEW STONE AGE)
The Neolithic period is a time of great social and agricultural development. This can be seen through the adoption of farming and increased monument construction, brought about largely by an increasing population. Settlements begin to be fortified such as the one on top of Carn Brea, and structures such as Chun Quoit, Boscawen-Un, Trevethy Quoit and Chysauster Ancient Village.
|2,400 - 1,500 BC||EARLY BRONZE AGE
This period is defined by the introduction of metalworking, especially in bronze, which uses Cornwall's natural resources of tin and copper. These sources are found by tin-streaming and open-cast mining for copper which then started a trade boom driven by the export of tin across Europe. The period is also characterised by its ceremonial and burial monuments: the stone circles, rows and standing stones or menhirs, the barrows with their kist graves and many other ancient monuments.
|1,500 - 600 BC||LATE BRONZE AGE
The climate begins to get wetter during this period which causes settlement movement to lowland sites such as Trethellan, Newquay, and a move to more seasonal and less intensive grazing on the uplands. Large scale clearance of woodland for crop cultivation begins with the use of new iron ploughs and axes. Population pressure, as a result, creates a more warlike society which often sacrifices weapons to their gods. Arrival of the first Celtics in Britain by 600 BC. Some recent scholarship suggests that it was before 1,000 BC, and possibly as early as 2,000 BC.
Corineus, in medieval British legend, was a prodigious warrior, a fighter of giants, and the first ruler of Cornwall c. 1100 BC.
|600 BC - AD 43||IRON AGE
Iron gradually replaces bronze for weapons and farming tools. People are starting to live in defended settlements called rounds which are bank-and-ditch enclosures protecting a number of round-houses within. There are also economic and social centres, where manufacturing and trading occur, establishing on hill-tops and headlands, such as Trevelgue Head, near Newquay, Castle Dore near Fowey and Castle an Dinas near St. Columb.
First attempted invasion of British Mainland by Julius Caesar. Over the next century, the Romans come to rule Cornwall, then part of Dumnonia.
Greek historian Diodorus Siculus named Cornwall "Belerion" - "The Shining Land", the first recorded place name in the British Isles.
|AD 19||(21st June) A total eclipse of the sun is visible in Cornwall.|
|AD 43 - AD 410||ROMANO-BRITISH PERIOD
(AD 47 for Exeter / AD 55 for Nanstallon)
New trading posts are set up such as the one at Carvossa, Probus, and a new style of housing is introduced in Penwith, the courtyard house, at villages like Chysauster.
St. Symphorian was beheaded at Forrabury church, Boscastle for his religious beliefs.
|238 - 244||The reign of Gordian III. A milestone inscribed with the Roman's name is found at Menheer, Gwennap, in 1942. It is the earliest example in Cornwall.|
Romans start to exploit the Cornish tin.
Saints arrive in Cornwall.
|380||Reign of King Caradocus.|
|400||Cornwall's native name (Kernow) appeared on record.|
|410 - 1000||Later Roman geography indicates that there are territorial sub-groupings, and what is now Cornwall - distinguished by its Late British name, Cornouia, the land of the Cornovii - may survive as one such subdivision. Welsh sources point to a succession of Dumnonian Kings right through to the 9th century, and a 10th century memorial to King Ricatus stands in the grounds of Penlee House, Penzance. By this time, Cornouia has become Cornubia (Latin), Cernyw (Welsh) and Kernow (Cornish). The British language evolves in Dumnonia into what becomes the Cornish language. Britain gains independence from Rome.|
|448||Civil war and plague ravage Britain.|
|450||First waves of settlers from Cornwall, and Devon, go to Brittany.|
|460||A group of Irish hermits landed in Cornwall and founded an oratory at Crantock.|
|465||Arthur born around this time.|
|470||Rising sea levels flooded the central plain of The Isles of Scilly, forming the current 55 islands and islets.|
|485||Period of Arthur's "twelve battles" during which he gains reputation for invincibility.|
A vision of the Archangel of St. Michael appeared on St. Michael's Mount.
King Mark's (Marcus Cunomorus) reign, his base was possibly Castle Dore and his name is mentioned on The Tristan Stone. Mark was the son of King Felix who died after a raid on his castle at Tintagel by the King of Ireland.
|500||The Kingdom of Cornwall emerged around the 6th century which included the tribes of the Dumnonii and the Cornish Cornovii.|
|500-600||English invasion: period of Arthur, Doniert and other Celtic Kings; and 'The age of the Saints', with Saint Michael, Saint Petroc and Saint Piran all making an appearance. King Mark – of Tristan and Iseult fame, ruled in the late 5th century. According to Cornish folklore, he held court at Tintagel Castle.|
|539||King Arthur's last battle at Camlann where he died. His successor was King Constantine.|
|540||King Arthur's Stone is inscribed.|
|547||Yellow Plague hits Britain, causing death of many people.|
|550||Plague of Justinian, which would affect all of Europe.|
Battle of Deorham Down near Bristol results in the separation of the West Welsh (the Cornish) from the Welsh by the advance of the Saxons.
Earliest Cornish Saints systematically convert Cornwall to Christianity, a considerable period before the conversion of the Anglo-Saxon peoples of England (the territory east of the River Tamar). These early monastic foundations were started by Christian preachers or Christian Druids from other Celtic lands, mainly Ireland.
By now, the Saxons, have destroyed the remains of Roman civilisation in eastern England, and in the west it is almost forgotten. The Saxons are established as the most important tribe of invaders and they are converting to Roman Christianity.
|664||The Synod of Whitby determines that England is again an ecclesiastical province of Rome, with its formal structure of dioceses and parishes. The Celtic church of Dumnonia is not party to the decision and the Cornish church remains monastic in nature.|
|682||The Cornish under their chieftain, Centwine,'drove the Britons as far as the sea' probably this was to the north-eastern part of Cornwall. This established the frontier around the Ottery-Tamar line.|
English reach Bristol Channel: Celts of Cornwall cut off from Celts of Wales.
Cornwall had began to be recorded as Cornubia by the Romans, and its people as Cornovii or Cornavii.
|705||Saxon westward advance is renewed and by 710 Exeter is occupied.|
|710-770||King Geraint of Dumnonia reigned over a reducing area that eventually encompassed only the present day Cornwall until 710. The Cornish won the Battle of Hehil, against the Wessex. Ina, King of the West Saxons, attempts to destroy the Kingdom of Dumnonia. Until 766 several battles took place, with the Saxons mainly victorious, except in 722 when Roderic, King of the Britons in Wales and Cornwall, repels Adelred, King of Wessex.|
|787||Viking Danes visit the coasts of Wessex, and form an alliance with the Cornish against the Saxons in 807.|
|815||The Saxon Egbert of Wessex conquers Cornwall but is unsuccessful in subjugating the Cornish people despite having 'laid waste the land from east to west'.|
|825||Cornish send army into Wessex (under attack from Mercians) but to no effect.
The Cornish rise against Ecgberht only to be defeated at Gafulford (Galford on the River Lew, West Devon).
|836||The Danish raids gave the Cornishmen an opportunity to revolt and they did so, assisted by their Danish allies.|
|838||A Cornish-Danish alliance is initially successful in a number of skirmishes with Egbert, but is eventually defeated in a pitched battle at Hingston Down, near Callington, the last against the Saxons.|
|839||(4th February) Aethelwulf succeeds his father Egbert as King of Wessex.|
|858||(13th January) Aethelwulf died at Steyning in Sussex. His son Aelthelbald becomes King.|
|860||(20th Decenber) Aethelbald dies and his brother Aethelbert becomes King.|
|865||Aethelred becomes King on the death of his brother Aethelbert.|
|871||(23rd April) Alfred becomes King of Wessex following the death of his brother Aethelred.|
|878||Dungarth, (identified as Doniert in Saxon records), King of the Cornish, is drowned. Doniert's Stone stands in St. Cleer parish.|
|890||Compilation of Anglo Saxon Chronicle is begun, perhaps at the direction of Alfred the Great.|
|899||(26th October) King Alfred the Great dies and is succeeded by His son Edward the Elder who consolidates Anglo-Saxon control over southern England.|
|900||(8th June) Edward the Elder, son of Alfred, crowned at Kingston-upon-Thames.|
|905||(5th December) Ealhswith, consort of King Alfred the Great, dies.|
|924||(17th July) Athelstan becomes King of Wessex and Mercia on the death of his father Edward the Elder.|
|927||Athelstan, eldest son of Edward the Elder and grandson of Alfred, attacks the south western Celts, forcing their withdrawal from Exeter. There is no record of him taking his campaigns into Cornwall. It seems probable that Hywel, King of the Cornish, agreed to pay tribute to Athelstan, as did Alfred the Great, and thus avoided more attacks and maintained a high degree of autonomy.|
|930||King Athelstan builds a church in St. Buryan on the site of the oratory of Saint Buriana.|
|931||King Athelstan sets up a Bishopric at St. Germans. It lasts until 1042 when the see is united with Credition and is later removed to Exeter, after which Cornwall remains an archdeaconry until 1876. The church of St. Germanus is finally consecrated in 1261 after its re-organisation by Bishop Bartholomew as an Augustinian priory (1161-84). Eight centuries on, St. Germans displays more of Norman planning than any other Cornish church, although two thirds of them have some Norman traces.|
Athelstan's settlement fixes the east bank of the River Tamar as the boundary between Anglo-Saxon Wessex and Celtic Cornwall.
Benedictine monks re founded the priory in Bodmin.
|939||(27th October) King Athelstan dies, childless.|
|940||Athelstan's successor is Edmund I of England.|
|946||(26th May) Eadred succeeds his brother Edmund.|
|955||(23rd November) King Eadred dies un-married and childless. His nephew Eadwig is crowned King of England.|
|959||(1st October) King Eadwig dies and Edgar King of Mercia and Northumbria becomes King of all England.|
|974||Saint Kew was conveyed to Plympton priory "for the support of two canons".|
|975||(8th July) Thirteen year old Edward succeeds to the throne.|
|978||(March) Ethelred, son of Edgar, becomes King of England following the murder of his half brother Edward.|
|981||The Vikings lay waste to Padstow.|
|986||Olaf Tryggvason allegedly visits the Isles of Scilly.|
|992||Ethelred makes a truce with Duke Richard I of Normandy.|
|997||Vikings travelled up the Tamar River and then the Tavy River as far as Lydford, and burned Ordwulf's monastery at Tavistock.|
|1015||King Canute II of Denmark and Norway again invades England.|
(25th April) Edmund Ironside, son of Ethelred II the Unready of England, becomes King. At the battle of Abingdon, in Essex, King Canute II of Denmark defeats Edmund who is assassinated a few months later and Canute takes the throne as King Canute of England.
Famine throughout Europe.
|1017||(2nd July) King Canute marries Emma of Normandy, the widow of Aethelred II. Canute divides England into four earldoms - Northumbria, Wessex, Mercia and East Anglia.|
|1035||(12th November) King Canute's illegitimate son Harold Harefoot usurps the throne from his half-brother, Harthacanute, the rightful heir who is away fighting in Denmark.|
|1037||Harold, son of Canute and Aelfgifu of Northhampton, seizes the English throne from Harthacanute, his half-brother and reigns as King Harold I.|
|1040||(17th March) King Harold dies and Harthacanute accedes to the throne.|
|1042||(8th June) Harthacanute dies and is succeeded by Edward the Confessor, son of Ethelred II.|
|1045||(23rd January) King Edward the Confessor marries Edith of Wessex.|
|1050||Brian of Brittany, is made 1st Earl of Cornwall.|
(5th January) King Edward the confessor dies and Harold Godwinson becomes King Harold II.
The Cornish and Breton languages are mutually intelligible at this point.
(14th October) William and his Norman army defeat Harold II and the Anglo Saxons at the Battle of Hastings. Harold is killed and, after subduing the south of the country William is crowned King of England.
|1068||The Cornish attacked the Saxon stronghold of Exeter but were soon driven back.|
Earl Moreton takes Moresk Castle at St. Clements near Truro, for William the Conqueror.
Robert, Count of Mortain is made Earl of Cornwall.
|1080||Richard Fitz Turold, an Anglo-Norman landowner mentioned in the Domesday Survey, had a castle built at Cardinham.|
|1084||William, Count of Mortain is born, he later becomes Earl of Cornwall.|
Domesday survey: the major landholders in Cornwall are Robert, Count of Mortain, King William, the Bishop of Exeter, and Tavistock Abbey. The entire population of Cornwall was reckoned to be 29,532.
Worthyvale Manor at Slaughterbridge near Camelford is known as 'Guerdevalan', (Battle of Avalon?).
Cornwall was divided into seven (subsequently nine) administrative areas known as 'hundreds'. The original hundreds were Penwith, Kerrier, Pydar, Powder, East and West Wivel and Trigg. Trigg was tri-divided to produce an additional two hundreds of Lesnewth and Stratton. Bodmin was recorded as the largest town in Cornwall with 68 houses.
|1087||(9th September) William II accedes to the throne on the death of his father, William I.|
|1090||Trematon Castle was established by Robert, Count of Mortain.|
A Benedictine priory is established in Tywardreath.
|1095||(8th December) Robert, Count of Mortain dies aged 57.|
|1099||(11th November) Mounts Bay is inundated by the sea making St. Michael's Mount an island and also the land between Land's End and The Isles of Scilly known as Lyonesse, with several towns and 140 churches, disappeared.|
(2nd August) Henry I succeeds his brother, William II.
'Rugby' evolved from hurling in Penzance.
Restormel Castle is built after the Norman conquest of England as a motte and bailey castle by Baldwin Fitz Turstin, the local sheriff.
|1104||Moresk Castle, a dwelling of Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, located at St. Clements near Truro, is destroyed.|
|1105||Henry I gave Tresco to Tavistock Abbey which established a priory on the island, it was abolished at the Reformation.|
|1110||William, Count of Mortain, is made Earl of Cornwall.|
Ingulf's Chronicle records Cornwall as a nation distinct from England.
Henry persuades the barons to accept Matilda as his lawful successor to the throne.
A Priory is built at Launceston on the banks of the River Kensey.
Truro receives its first Charter of Incorporation from Earl Richard de Lucy, the King's Justicar.
(1st December) King Henry 1st dies of food poisoning. Stephen usurps the throne from Matilda, Henry's daughter and plunges England into nineteen years of civil war.
Edward the Confessor granted St. Michael's Mount to the Benedictine monks from Mont St. Michel in France, and they built a priory on the summit of the mount. They also constructed a harbour and causeway. Henry V granted it to the Abbey of Syon in Twickenham.
|1140||Alain de Bretagne becomes Earl of Cornwall upon the death of William, Count of Mortain aged 56.|
The wooden castle at Launceston was replaced with the imposing stone castle known as 'Castle Terrible' (Launceston is the only Cornish town to have been surround by a stone wall, up to six feet wide, and gates for defensive purposes).
The first Tintagel Castle is constructed by Earl Reginald.
|1146||(15th September) Alain de Bretagne, 1st Earl of Richmond and 1st Earl of Cornwall dies.|
|1150||The parish church of St. Anthony was built and dedicated to St. Antoninus King and Martyr.|
|1154||(25th October) Henry II accedes to the throne at the age of 21 upon the death of his second cousin, Stephen aged 57.|
|1160||A castle was built at Truro by Richard de Lucy, Chief Justice of England to Henry II. In 1839 the castle site was used as the site for a new cattle market. In 1984 the cattle market was relocated and the site re-developed for the new Crown Courts.|
|1173||Reginald de Dunstanville, Earl of Cornwall, grants a charter to his 'free bugesses of Triueru', and he addresses his meetings at Truro to 'All men both Cornish and English' suggesting a continuing differentiation. Subsequently, for Launceston, Reginald's Charter continues that distinction - 'To all my men, French, English and Cornish'.|
|1175||(1st July) Reginald de Dunstanville, Earl of Cornwall dies aged 65.|
|1177||A monk of Bodmin stole the bones of St. Petroc and fled to St. Meen in Brittany.|
|1180||Renfred Arundell was born at Treleigh.|
(6th July) Richard I becomes King of England upon the death of Henry II. Prince John is granted possession of Cornwall.
Lostwithiel is granted a Royal Charter.
Saltash also became a franchised seaport at this time.
|1193||St. Michael's Mount was seized by Henry de La Pomeray (on behalf of the Earl of Cornwall – later King John).|
|1197||(20th November) The first Lord Warden of the Stannaries of Cornwall (and Devon) was William de Wrotham who was appointed to the post.|
|1198||William de Wrotham writes of those working tin in Cornwall paying twice the taxation of their Devon counterparts.|
|1199||(6th April) John accedes to the throne on the death of his brother, Richard I.|
King John grants a charter for the Cornish Stannaries. No fixed boundaries were set for the Stannaries so in effect they covered all of Cornwall and as each Stannary appointed six Stannators to the Stannary Parliament, the Parliament represents all of Cornwall.
The first Assizes in Cornwall are held in Launceston.
|1202||King John visits St. Buryan after landing at Sennen from Ireland, for an inspection of the local mining works.|
Grant to William de Boterell of a market at Boscastle.
|1205||Grants of markets at Derteigne and Launceston.|
|1207||Grant of a fair at Stratton.|
|1208||Sir Ralph Arundell was born at Lanherne House.|
|1209||(5th January) Richard, second son of King John is born. He later becomes the first Earl of Cornwall.|
|1214||Battle of Bouvines confirms French crown's sovereignty over the duchy of Normandy's lands in Brittany and Normandy, meaning Cornwall and Brittany are once more in separate states.|
|1215||(15th June) Magna Carta agreed by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor. Written to make peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons, it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown.|
|1216||(19th October) Henry III is crowned King at the age of nine. England is ruled temporarily by two regents, Hubert de Burgh and William the Marshal.|
Grant of a market at St. Germans.
Cornwall is acknowledged as having the continuing right to appoint its own sheriff.
|1224||Grant of a market and fair to Lostwithiel.|
Grant of a fair at St. Keyne.
|1226||Grant of a market at St. Ives.|
|1227||Henry III builds a stone castle at Launceston to replace the earlier wooden one.|
|1228||Grant of a market at Camelford.|
|1229||Grant of a market at Callington.|
|1230||Grant of a market at Launceston.|
|1233||Richard, Earl of Cornwall, acquired Tintagel and re-built Tintagel Castle on the headland.|
|1235||Cornish militia fight against the Scots.|
The Franciscan Friary at Bodmin is founded.
|1242||Richard, Earl of Cornwall after returning from a campaign in France finally entered the port of Mousehole after nearly foundering in a storm.|
|1249||(26th December) Edmund, the son of Richard Plantagenet (Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans) was born.|
|1250||Craft Guilds come into existence at Bodmin.|
|1256||Grant of a market at Stratton.|
|1257||Grant of a fair at St. Ives.|
|1258||Grant to Bishop of Exeter for a market and fair at Penryn.|
Walter de Bronescombe, Bishop of Exeter, makes a tour of Cornwall dedicating nineteen parish churches which had been re-built or re-modelled. They include St. Anthony-in-Roseland, Antony, Botus Fleming, St. Breoke, St. Dominick, Pillaton, and Truro St. Mary's. By this time Norman designs are considered dark and old-fashioned.
Grant of market and fair at Camelford.
Fowey is the most important port in medieval Cornwall.
|1261||A charter for the removal of sea sand distinguishes between rights in Cornwall and England.|
|1264||Sir Thomas de Tracy surrenders Restormel Castle to Sir Ralph Arundell.|
|1265||Bishop Bronescombe lays the foundation of Glasney College at Penryn, and within two years several buildings including a church, refectory, chapter house and mills are completed.|
|1266||Grants of market and fair at Porthenesse, Mousehole, and Stratton; grant to Henry de Pomeray of a fair at Tregony.|
|1271||The Tinners Arms pub is built in Zennor to accommodate the masons who constructed St. Senara's Church which is famous for its mermaid.|
(2nd April) The title Earl of Cornwall passes to Edmund on the death of Richard who died at Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire and holds it until 1300, and on his death it then reverts to Edward I then to Edward II.
(16th November) Edward learns that he has succeeded to the throne on his way home from the Crusade after the death of Henry III.
|1275||(23rd October) Sir Ralph Arundell dies aged 67.|
|1280||Edmund, Earl of Cornwall builds Helston Castle.|
|1281||Grant of market and fair at St. Germans.|
|1284||Earl Edmund refutes the King of England's claim to jurisdiction over Cornwall, and again similarly in 1290.|
|1289||Edmund acted as regent in Edward's absence abroad and later served as High Sheriff of Cornwall.|
Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, makes Lostwithiel the county capital where he built the 'Duchy Palace'. This once extensive building incorporated the Shire Hall, the Exchequer of the Earldom (later Duchy), the Stannary Goal and the Coinage Hall. Edmund also modernised Restormel Castle at Launceston. He was the last Earl of Cornwall to reside in the county.
Mappa Mundi [in Hereford Cathedral] shows the four constituent parts of Britain as England, Scotland, Wales and Cornwall.population of Cornwall is now 34,914 persons.
Grant to Philip Daubeney for market and fair at Polruan.
|1295||Truro, Bodmin, Tregony, Launceston and Liskeard are granted the right to send two representatives each to the Parliament of Edward I. This privilege continued until the Second Reform Act of 1867.|
|1296||Grant of a market and fair at Lelant, near Hayle.|
(1st October) Edmund, Earl of Cornwall dies aged 51 and the Earldom of Cornwall reverted to the Crown.
Grant of a market and fair at Mousehole.
Grants, or claims proved, to allow markets and/or fairs at Bodmin (claim of the prior of Bodmin), Boscastle (claim of W. de Boterus), Boswythgy, Callington (claim of Reg. de Ferrars), Kilkhampton (claim of R. de Grenville), Lananta (claim of W. de Boterus), Looe (claim of W. de Bodrygan), Michell (claim of J. de Arundel), Mousehole, Penryn (claim of Thomas, Bishop of Exeter), Plymouth, St. Brian, St. Germans (claim of the prior of St. Germans), Tregony (claim of H. de Pomeray); claim of the burgesses for a merchant guild at Helston proved.
|1303||There is reluctance in Cornwall to supply ships to assist England against Scotland.|
(7th July) Edward II accedes to the throne on the death of his father, Edward I.
The Tinners Charter is granted by Edward 1.
Edward II gives the title, Earl of Cornwall, to his court favourite Piers Gaveston who holds it until his execution in 1312.
|1311||Grant of market and fair to Bishop of Exeter for Lawhitton, and market and fair at Penryn; grant of market and fair at St. Breock, and St. Germans.|
Grant to the Bishop of Exeter of a market for Caergaule (Cargoll, Newlyn East); grant of a market and fair at Castelboterell.
The Italian, Antonio Pessaigne, obtains from the Crown a lien on coinage dues in Cornwall and Devon and the authority to buy all tin coined. This causes great hostility in the Stannaries. The miners continue to sell to whom they please and in 1316 obtain a revocation of the patent.
(19th June) Piers Gaveston Earl of Cornwall, is executed on the orders of the Earl of Lancaster.
|1313||A market and two fairs were granted to Wadebridge.|
|1314||Grant to Nicholas Dawnye for market and fair at Sheviock.|
Total failure of the harvest in Cornwall through bad weather.
|1316||Grant of a market and fair at Helston.|
|1320||Grant to the Treasurer of the Cathedral of Exeter to De St. Probain (Probus) for markets and two fairs.|
|1321||(30th April) A cargo (including jewels) worth £6,000 was lost when the sailing vessel 'St. Bartholomew' was lost near Lizard Point.|
|1322||After Edward III's unpopular choice of Piers Gaveston to be Earl of Cornwall, and his execution on the orders of the Earl of Lancaster in 1312, a number of the Cornish gentry support Lancaster in rebelling against the King. Lancaster is defeated at Boroughbridge and executed.|
|1324||A charter for two weekly markets and two annual fairs was granted at Redruth.|
|1327||(25th January) Edward III accedes to the throne after his father, Edward II, is formally deposed.|
|1328||John of Eltham, becomes Earl of Cornwall.|
|1330||Edward, First Duke of Cornwall is born. He was the eldest son of King Edward III and became known as the Black Prince.|
|1331||Grant to Ralph de Bloyou of a market and fair at Marazion.|
Grant by Edward III of weekly market and seven day fair at Penzance to Alice de l'Isle.
(25th April) Penzance received its market charter from King Edward III.
Grant of a market and fair at Inceworth (in Maker and Antony), and Shepstall (in Ruanlanihorne).
John of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall dies aged 20.
A Charter was granted to the town of Helston. This gave the town a weekly market and four annual fairs. The income from the market and fairs helped considerably with the finances of the town.
(26th August) Cornish archers, conspicuous for their long bows and accurate shooting, distinguish themselves at the Battle of Crecy.
777 men from Fowey ("Gallants of Fowey") fight at the Siege of Calais.
|1348||The population of Cornwall is now 108,000 persons.|
|1350||The 'Black Death' claims half the population of towns like Bodmin and Truro.|
|1351||Grant of a market and fair at Polruan.|
|1353||Edward the Black Prince visits Launceston Castle.|
|1354||Edward the Black Prince visits Restormel Castle.|
|1357||Rev William Penfold fell out with a gang of pirates, the gang tracked him down to the church of St. Winwaloe in Poundstock, and burst in while he was holding a service to brutally murder him at the altar.|
|1358||Edward the Black Prince re-builds Restormel Castle with stone and make it his main administrative centre.|
|1360||Second outbreak of The Black Death in Cornwall lasting to 1362.|
|1371||John of Gaunt, the most powerful landowner in England and brother of the Edward the Black Prince arrives in Fowey with his new bride, Constance of Castile.|
|1376||(8th June) Edward the Black Prince dies aged 45, making Richard of Bordeaux Duke of Cornwall.|
(16th July) Ten year old Richard II succeeds his grandfather, Edward III; the kingdom is ruled at first by the King's uncles, John of Gaunt and Thomas of Gloucester.
A poll-tax census was taken, when it was found that the entire population of Cornwall did not exceed 61,964 persons.
|1379||Castle built on Carn Brea by the Basset family.|
|1380||The Spanish fleet attacked the port of Fowey prompting the blockhouses at Fowey and Polruan to be built at each side of the estuary to defend the port using a chain between them.|
|1381||Grant to Daubeney family of market and fair at Polruan.|
|1385||Arwenack House is built in Falmouth by the Killigrew family.|
|1387||John Trevisa of Cornwall wrote the first book about England in the English language (previously latin was the language used by authors).|
|1390||Caerhays estate was passed by marriage to the Trevanion family after the marriage of Robert Trevanion to Johanna Arundell.|
|1397||The chapel on Rame Head was first licensed for Mass.|
|1399||(13th October) Henry IV returns from exile in France to reclaim his estates seized by Richard II; he claims the throne and is crowned. Henry of Monmouth becomes the Duke of Cornwall.|
|1400-1500||A period of concentrated church building occurs. Almost every Cornish church is altered or enlarged. Five centuries later, most remain substantially unchanged in form, despite subsequent restorations.|
|1400||Cornwall is described as Cornubia - Land of the Saints.|
|1402||Charter of Confirmation to the Tinners of Cornwall.|
|1403||Manor of Arwenack in Falmouth acquired by the Killigrew family.|
|1404||Grant by Henry IV to Thomas, Lord Berkeley, of a market and fair at Penzance, in lieu of one 7-day fair, three 2-day fairs to be held.|
Launceston Technology College is established.
|1411||A wooden bridge is built across the river at Looe.|
(9th April) Henry V accedes to the throne at the age of 25 upon the death of his father, Henry IV.
|1415||100 archers sail from Fowey to take part in Battle of Agincourt.|
|1422||(31st August) Henry VI aged eight months becomes King of England on the death of his father, Henry V.|
|1425||St. Petroc's church is built at Padstow.|
|1427||The Vyvyan family, take over Trelowarren House.|
|1430||John Trewollas builds the first pier at Mevagissey.|
|1431||The first public clock in Cornwall is installed in the tower at St. Mary Magdalene Church, Launceston.|
|1436||A stone bridge is built to replace the wooden one which burned down at Looe.|
|1437||Horsebridge is built by French Benedictine monks across the River Tamar near Stoke Climsland.|
Work is started on building a new quay at Newquay.
|1440||St. Blazey Church is built around this time, and thoroughly restored in 1839 by W Moffat, and again in 1897.|
|1443||Sir Richard Edgcumbe was born at Cotehele House.|
|1446||Sir Nicholas Carew of Antony House, died.|
|1450||A new bridge is built over the River Lynher east of Callington replacing an earlier ford.|
|1453||(13th October) Edward, son of Henry VI becomes the Duke of Cornwall.|
|1455||Wars of the Roses begins as a feud between the Courtenays and Bonvilles in Cornwall and Devon.|
|1457||Fowey was attacked by the French and set on fire. Elizabeth Treffry defends Place House.|
|1460||Reverend Thomas Lovibond commenced building a bridge across the River Camel at Wadebridge.|
|1461||(4th March) Edward IV, son of Richard of York, is declared King following the murder of Henry VI.|
|1466||King Edward IV amends the Tinners charter.|
|1468||The 'Raphael' was wrecked in Bude Bay.|
|1469||Rebuilding of St. Petroc's church, Bodmin.|
|1470||(2nd November) Edward, son of Edward IV becomes the Duke of Cornwall.|
|1470's||'Piracy' against Breton, Norman and Spanish vessels (what would now be termed mutual reprisals) is rife along Channel coast . The 'Fowey gallants' are particularly notable. Determined to put an end to this, Edward IV despatches a commission to Cornwall to 'arrest all mariners, masters, pirates, victuallers of ships' of Fowey, Bodinnick, and Polruan. The independent Cornish seafarers and their ships are removed to England and placed in custody. One Harrington is executed.|
|1473||Henry Pomeroy captured St. Michael's Mount, on behalf of Prince John, against 6,000 of Edward IV's troops.|
|1474||Edward IV orders arrest of Fowey pirates and confiscates the chain between the blockhouses.|
|1475||The first parts of Godolphin House are built near Helston.|
|1478||The 'La Kateryne' was wrecked near St. Michael's Mount.|
(9th April) On the death of Edward IV, the crown passes to his 12 year old son, Edward V.
(6th July) Richard III declares himself King after confining and possibly ordering the murder of his two nephews, Edward V and Richard Duke of York, in the Tower of London.
(22nd August) Henry VII becomes King after defeating Richard III of York at the Battle of Bosworth Field. The Wars of the Roses are ended.
|1486||(20th September) Arthur, eldest son of Henry VII becomes the Duke of Cornwall.|
|1487||Sir Henry Bodrugan in danger of being arrested for treason fled his captors with a tremendous leap over the cliffs into a waiting vessel where he escaped to France, the spot a mile south of Mevagissey, near Portmellon where he leaped at Chapel Point is still called "Bodrugan's Leap" his property and land were confiscated and given to his pursuer Sir Richard Edgcumbe of Cotehele.|
|1488||St. Saviours chapel at Polruan was re-built by Sir Richard Edgcumbe.|
|1489||(8th September) Sir Richard Edgcumbe dies in France, aged 46.|
|1496||Stannary Courts suspended. Restored 1508.|
|1497||Cornish uprising against Henry VII's taxation to pay for his war against the Scots, which is a curtailment of Cornish constitutional rights under the Stannary law Charter of 1305 (that no tax of 10ths and 15ths may be raised in Cornwall). Resistance, particularly at St. Keverne under the leadership of Michael Joseph (an gof), gains momentum at Bodmin when taken up by lawyer, Thomas Flamank. They lead a march to London, are joined by Lord Audley en route, but are confronted by 10,000 of Henry's men under Lord Daubeney. On 16th June the Cornish force, armed only with country weapons, are routed. Audley, Flamank and Joseph are executed. On September 7th Perkin Warbeck, pretender to the throne, lands at Whitesand Bay, near Land's End and then occupies St. Michael's Mount. Warmly welcomed, he is proclaimed King Richard IV at Bodmin.|
|1498||Plague hits Cornwall.|
|1499||Sir Richard Edgcumbe is born at Cotehele, he is the son of Sir Piers Edgcumbe.|
|1500||Poundstock Gildhouse is built near Bude.|
|1501||The church at St. Buryan was re-built and enlarged and a tower added.|
|1502||(2nd April) Henry, younger son of Henry VII becomes the Duke of Cornwall.|
|1503||(25th January) Margaret, Henry's daughter marries James IV of Scotland. The marriage gives James' descendants a claim to the English throne.|
|1504||John Trelawny is born, he later becomes an English Member of Parliament. He was the son of Walter and Isabella Trelawny of Menheniot, and he was High Sheriff of Cornwall in 1547.|
|1508||'Charter of Pardon' granted by Henry VII states 'that no statutes, acts, ordinances... or proclamations shall take effect in...[Cornwall] or elsewhere to the prejudice or in exoneration of the said Tinners, bounders, possessors of tinworks... dealers in white tin or the heirs or successors of any of them, unless there has previously been convened 24 good and lawful men of the 4 Stannaries of the county of Cornwall...; so that no statutes ...[etc.] to be made in future by us, our heirs and successors, or by the said Prince and Duke of Cornwall for the time being shall be made except with the consent of the said 24 men so elected and appointed...' allowed the Cornish Stannary Parliament to veto English legislation.|
(21st April) Henry VIII accedes to the throne on the death of his father, Henry VII.
(23rd June) Henry VIII's coronation procession includes 'nine children of honour' representing 'England and France, Gascony, Guienne, Normandy, Anjou, Cornwall, Wales and Ireland.'
|1510||Plague across Cornwall again.|
|1511||Sir Henry Trecarrel built his mansion in the parish of Lezant, near Launceston.|
Penzance received Royal Charters for its harbour from King Henry VIII.
Death of Thomasine Bonaventure of Week St. Mary. Known as 'the Cornish Shepherdess' (later Dame Thomasine Percival), she has been Lord Mayoress of London.
Marazion was attacked and burnt during a war with France that started in 1511.
Berry tower is completed as part of a chapel on Berry Down overlooking Bodmin.
As part of the colonisation of Ireland an English official suggests that one man should be sent from 'every parish in England, Cornwall and Wales'.
The population of Cornwall is now 64,000 persons.
|1524||St. Mary Magdalene Church in Launceston is built by Sir Henry Trecarrel as a memorial to his infant son who died.|
|1527||The 'St. Anthony', the King of Portugal's treasure ship with a cargo said to be worth an estimated £100 million in today's values, foundered off Gunwalloe, near Porthleven.|
|1531||The appearance in the sky of Halley's comet causes widespread panic and talk of holy retribution.|
|1533||(25th January) King Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn. And Princess Elizabeth (later Elizabeth I) is born.|
Polydore Vergil's Anglica Historia describes Britain as being made up of 'Scots, Welsh, English and Cornish people' and that 'England is limited on the West part with the bounds of Cornwall and Wales.'
King Henry VIII abolished the priory on St. Michael's Mount, turning the island into a fortress as a defence against threatened invasions by Roman Catholic France and Spain.
|1536||(19th May) Anne Boleyn is executed and King Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour.|
(12th October) Jane Seymour dies giving birth to Edward (later Edward VI).
(12th October) Edward becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
|1538||Leland's tour of Cornwall.|
King Henry VIII starts the dissolution of the Monasteries including most religious houses in Cornwall.
(6th January) King Henry VIII marries Anne of Cleves, but the marriage is annulled in July.
(28th July) King Henry VIII marries Catherine Howard.
Andrew Boorde's First book of 'the introduction of knowledge' records that 'In Cornwall is two speeches, the one is naughty Englysshe and the other is Cornysshe. And there may be many men and women the which cannot speak one word of Englysshe but all Cornysshe.'
(13th February) Catherine Howard is executed for treason.
King Henry VIII continues with the dissolution of the Monasteries and priories in Cornwall.
(12th July) King Henry VIII marries the twice-widowed Catherine Parr, his sixth and last wife.
(19th July) Loss of the flagship 'Mary Rose' in the Solent and the death of Sir Richard Grenville.
(28th January) Edward VI accedes to the throne at the age of nine after the death of his father, Henry VIII.
Roger Palmer, a local mason, was commissioned to build Mount Edgcumbe House.
Second uprising against new government taxation laws starts in St. Keverne.
|1548||Glasney College Penryn is closed and much of the cultural heritage held there is destroyed.|
(June-August) Uprising in protest against the imposition by Edward VI of the use of the Book of Common Prayer in English. From the 9th. June, rebels attacked St. Michael's Mount, Marazion and St. Ives. Following this the rebels, under their leader Sir Humphrey Arundell of Helland, marched to Bodmin and where they were joined by the towns mayor Nicholas Boyer. Sir William Godolphin was escorted to Dunheved Castle, Launceston, to be imprisoned. Soon after they captured the governor of Trematon Castle and plundered the buildings. They then drew a petition to the King. The 5000 strong Cornish army continued on to take Plymouth and Exeter. They were eventually beaten and forced back with at least 4000 of them killed. This spells the end for the use of the Cornish language.
Truro gained a grammar school.
(27th January) Sir Humphrey Arundell, leader of the Cornish army, dies aged 37.
|1551||Philip Rashleigh I dies aged 51, at his home near Fowey.|
Sir Walter Raleigh visits Falmouth.
Edward VI’s government found the money to begin building a fort to protect the port at St. Mary's on the Isles of Scilly, the unfinished remains of which are now known as Harry’s Walls. It was later replaced by Star Castle.
|1553||(6th July) Edward VI dies of tuberculosis aged 15, at Greenwich Palace and Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen, she is later known as Queen Mary I.|
Great famine across Cornwall.
A Royal Charter was granted to Launceston by Queen Mary.
|1558||(17th November) Accession of Queen Elizabeth I on the death of her half-sister, Mary I.|
|1561||Sir John Arundell dies aged 66. His monumental brass survives in Stratton Church.|
|1562||(1st February) Sir Richard Edgcumbe dies aged 63 at Mount Edgcumbe, he was the son of Sir Piers Edgcumbe.|
Bodmin received a Royal Charter from Elizabeth I.
Sir Reginald Mohun, 1st Baronet of Boconnoc is born. He became a prominent member of the gentry of Cornwall.
Sir Walter Raleigh brings potatoes and tobacco from the New World.
Tregrehan Estate is bought by the Carlyon Family.
Spaniards land at Penryn late at night with the intent of burning the town. It is during a performance of the Miracle Play of St. Sampson and, according to Richard Carew writing in the 1590's, they are put to flight by the players.
Birth of Sir William Lower. He became an astronomer from the early telescopic period.
The population of Cornwall is now 70,000 persons.
Under Elizabeth I Fowey is granted the right to elect two MP's.
The bridge at Lerryn was re-built by order of Queen Elizabeth I.
Sir Richard Grenville proposes to the Queen an expedition to find the southern route around America to the Pacific and to establish new colonies, however this plan was rejected.
The Catholic Priest Cuthbert Mayne was captured by the High Sheriff of Cornwall, Sir Richard Grenville and executed at Launceston after which his head was impaled on the gate of Launceston Castle. This was done as a warning to Catholics to renounce their faith.
|1578||Plague in Penzance.|
|1579||Lord Russell, Earl of Bedford sold Boconnoc House to Sir William Mohun who later re-built it.|
|1580||Sir Francis Drake used Trematon Castle as a store for the treasure he had amassed during his voyage of circumnavigation and privateering.|
Queen Elizabeth I awards Padstow its Borough Charter.
|1583||Sir William Moyle builds six Almshouses in St Germans.|
Sir Walter Raleigh was Knighted and was appointed warden of the Stannaries in Cornwall.
Philip Rashleigh's ship 'Francis of Fowey' sails with Frobisher to the Arctic and with Drake to the West Indies.
John Trefusis is born at St. Columb Major, he later served as an MP and a magistrate.
Spanish soldiers invaded Penryn.
Meeting of the Convocation of Tinners of Cornwall petitions Queen Elizabeth I to confer powers to legislate, but this goes unheeded. In 1624 the Meeting of Tinners of Cornwall assumes the power to legislate. These laws are added to in later Convocations in 1636, 1688 and 1753.
Spanish Armada seen from the Lizard on 19th July. A warning beacon was lit on St. Michael's Mount. On that evening, the English fleet was trapped in Plymouth Harbour by the incoming tide. By the 20th July they were just off Rame Head and engaging the English fleet led by Sir Francis Drake near the Eddystone Rocks. The Spanish Armada fleet was chased off up the channel towards the Isle of Wight.
Truro was granted a new charter by Elizabeth I which ensured it was a free borough with a mayor and 24 Capital Burgesses.
(October) Sir William Godolphin dies aged 42.
Sir John II after being imprisoned in the Tower and then less rigorously confined, died at Isleworth in this year. His body was returned to St. Columb for burial.
(10th September) Death of Sir Richard Grenville of the Revenge whilst he was second in command of a fleet (vice admiral) under Lord Thomas Howard that sailed to seize the Spanish treasure ships on route to Spain from South America.
Bubonic plague recorded at Redruth.
Penzance receives Royal Charters from King Henry VIII for markets and fairs.
(11th April) John Eliot was born at Port Eliot.
(January) John Treffry is born. He became an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1621 to 1622.
Marazion is granted its charter, the first in Penwith.
Sir Jonathan Trelawny (1568–1604) is Knighted.
During the Spanish Armada two Spanish ships, a bark and a pinnace had made their way to St. Ives to seek shelter from the storm which had dispersed the Spanish fleet. They were captured by the English warship 'Warspite' of Sir Walter Raleigh leaking from the same storm. The information given by the prisoners was vital on learning the Armada's objectives.
Pendennis Castle is fortified with ramparts and bastions.
St. Michael's Mount sold by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Robert Cecil (later the Earl of Salisbury).
Francis Carew created a method of producing out of season fruit.
The ancient Cornish Kendall family build Pelyn House near Lostwithiel.
Publication of Richard Carew's 'The Survey of Cornwall'.
(24th March) Upon the death of Queen Elizabeth I, Arthur Hopton the Venetian ambassador described her as ruling over five different peoples: English, Welsh, Cornish, Scottish and Irish. James VI of Scotland becomes King James I of England, Scotland, and Ireland uniting the thrones of Scotland and England. Henry Frederick, eldest son of James I becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
(5th November) Guy Fawkes and other Catholic dissidents attempt to blow up King and Parliament in The Gunpowder Plot. They are betrayed and arrested. The event is celebrated to this day with bonfire night.
(30th January) A coastal flood in the Bristol Channel which may have been a tsunami, also floods all the low lying villages along the north Cornwall coast.
Sir William Lower from near Bodmin, an astronomer from the early telescopic period observed Halley's comet and took a number of careful measurements and it was determined that the comet was following a curved course.
Sir Francis Godolphin, born in 1540, dies aged 68. Expert in mining, he has prospered from some of the best Cornish mines of the time, bringing in German engineers to improve mining processes. His success added to Queen Elizabeth's revenues by £1,000 per year.
(11th October) Birth of Samuel Enys at Constantine.
Charles, younger son of James I becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
Sir Robert Geffrey is born at Landrake. He was later to become an English merchant and Lord Mayor of London.
A Royal Charter is granted by James I to Penzance and John Maddern was appointed as the first Mayor.
The Market House in Penzance was built.
(12th April) Sir William Lower an astronomer who observed Halley's comet, dies aged 45.
Pocahontas may have visited Indian Queens, although this is disputed.
Edward Herle is born at Prideaux Place, he became an English politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1640 and 1689. He also fought in the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War.
A merchantman of unknown name is wrecked on the Lizard Peninsula. It is later called either the "Rill Cove Wreck" or the "Lizard Silver Wreck" due to the large amount of coins recovered from the site.
Sir Richard Robartes, a Truro tin and wool merchant. buys the Lanhydrock estate and begins to build the house which bears two dates at the front, 1636 and 1642. The gatehouse is only completed in 1658. In 1881 a large part of the house is destroyed by fire, but re-built with additions.
(16th August) The 'Mayflower', en route to America with the Pilgrim Fathers stops off at Newlyn to take on water.
Penryn is granted a Royal Charter by Kings James I.
(19th August) A severe storm greatly damaged cereal crops in Cornwall, extreme winds blew for six hours.
(13th August) Thomas Burgess of Truro, dies aged 83. He was an English merchant, and was Mayor of Truro in 1589 and an alderman of the town at the time its coat of arms was confirmed in 1620. He was also MP for Truro.
(27th March) Charles I succeeds his father, James I.
(July) Thomas Burgess of Truro, dies aged 46, was an English Member of Parliament.
Pendennis Castle is improved again with new defensive lines, and artillery, was built across the peninsula.
(1st July) The Trelawny Baronetcy was created for John Trelawny.
(4th March) Sir John Eliot imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Sir John Dodridge re-interprets preceding historical records in his book An historical account of the ancient and modern state of the Principality of Wales, Duchy of Cornwall and earldom of Chester, referring to Cornwall as 'anciently reputed a Dukedom', and earlier 'an Earldom'. He states that 'until the 11th year of King Edward III, at a time it was a-new constituted a Duchy, the first erected in England after the Conquest', suggesting ancient Duchy Charters and Royal intents had been misunderstood over the preceding 300 years.
(29th May) Charles, son of Charles I becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
A harbour is built at Trevaunance Cove, St. Agnes.
(27th November) Sir John Eliot dies aged 40 whilst imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Trewan Hall at St. Columb Major is built.
Many clergy in Cornwall refused to read the Declaration of the Book of Sports in their churches on Sundays.
(7th February) Robert Robartes is born he later became an MP and Viscount Bodmin.
Turkish Pirates infest the Cornish coast.
(18th February) The Battle off Lizard Point was a naval action which took place off the coast of Cornwall, during the Eighty Years' War. The Spanish admiral, Miguel de Horna, commander of the Armada of Flanders, intercepted an important Anglo-Dutch merchant convoy of 44 vessels escorted by six warships, destroying or capturing 20 of them.
A Royal Charter is granted to St. Ives by King Charles I.
(26th December) Reginald Mohun, MP, 1st Baronet of Boconnoc dies aged 74.
John, 2nd Lord Robartes, the leader of the Cornish Group of Parliamentarians became Lord-Lieutenant of Cornwall.
(23rd September) The 'Royal Merchant', an English merchant ship was lost at sea with 18 lives lost off Land's End. On board were at least £100,000 of gold, 400 bars of Mexican silver and nearly 500,000 pieces of eight and other coins, making it one of the most valuable wrecks of all times.
(22nd August) War of the five peoples - Civil War in Britain, involving the English, Scots, Irish, Welsh, Cornish.
(13th October) Sir Ralph Hopton proclaims the King's commission at Launceston gaining the support of the townspeople against the Parliamentary committee which attempted to indict him for disturbing the peace.
St. Michael's Mount seized by Charles I.
(Early December) Sir Ralph Hopton secures the Cornish side of Plymouth Sound.
(19th January) Battle of Braddock Down. Colonel Ruthin's Parliamentarian troops are defeated by Sir Ralph Hopton with Sir Bevil Grenville's Regiment which includes the giant 7 foot 4 inch Anthony Payne carrying his colours. Two hundred Parliamentarians were killed, 1,250 were taken prisoner and two large cannon were captured by the Royalists.
(8th February) During a fight between the Cornish Royalists and Parliamentarians Colonel Sidney Godolphin of the Cornish army was shot dead.
(22nd April) The Parliamentarian forces under the command of Oliver Cromwell advanced in an attempt to capture Launceston, from the Royalists. The Royalist army stationed their forces on the summit of Windmill Hill, the steep hill which overlooks the town. The Parliamentarians captured the town, but were unable to dislodge the Royalist forces from Windmill Hill. James Basset, brother of Sir Francis Basset and Sir Thomas Basset, was killed in battle at Polsloe Bridge near Launceston.
(16th May) Battle of Stratton. The Earl of Stamford's Parliamentarian force is repelled by Hopton's men after day-long fighting, with 300 men killed and 1700 captured, and retreats to Bideford.
(5th July) The victories for Hopton with the Cornish militia provide the impetus for campaigns in Devon and Somerset. Taunton and Bridgwater are taken by the Cornish army, but Sir Bevil Grenville, John Trevanion and Sir Nicholas Slanning are killed in the moment of victory at the Battle of Lansdown in Somerset and Hopton is seriously wounded. Bristol falls to Hopton's troops, and later Exeter.
(7th September) The city of Exeter surrendered to the Cornish Royalist army.
(10th September) The King sent a letter thanking the Cornish for their support and for fighting for him. The letter was placed in every church and chapel in Cornwall. Some churches in Cornwall still display the letter today.
(5th October) The town of Dartmouth in Devon surrendered to the Cornish Royalist army.
(3rd December) The siege of Plymouth begins, but the result is disastrous for the Cavaliers. Sir Richard Grenville, having previously declared for Parliament, invites his troops to follow him into the King's service. Parliament proclaim him a traitor.
(March) Sir Richard Grenville arrives in Plymouth to maintain a blockade, but it results in a stalemate as inhabitants obtain enough provisions to survive. The arrival of Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, in command of the Roundhead army of 8000 men forces Grenville to retreat westwards across the River Tamar.
(May) some 300 Parliamentarians attacked and captured the fort at Mount Edgcumbe, then went on to attack the House and take Maker Church (used as a signal tower), and a battery of six guns at Cawsand.
Campaign at Lostwithiel.
(End September) Sir Richard Grenville was put in command of the siege of Plymouth (surrounding Plymouth with soldiers). Plymouth supported the Parliamentarians but Sir Richard’s Cornish troops tried to make its people surrender.
(21st January) Sir Thomas Fairfax is chosen to command the New Model Army. The Royalist army is also reorganised and a succession of command changes and squabbling ensues. Prince Charles becomes the Commander-in-Chief. The Royalists suffers a noted defeat at Naseby in Northamptonshire and Fairfax's men overrun them in confrontations in the south and west of England.
Launceston Castle eventually fell to Cromwell.
Cornish Royalist leader Sir Richard Grenville, 1st Baronet made Launceston his base and he stationed Cornish troops along the River Tamar and issued them with instructions to keep "all foreign troops out of Cornwall".
(January) The Prince gives Lord Hopton command of the Royalist forces, with Wentworth to command the horse and Grenville the foot. Sir Richard Grenville refuses and is imprisoned in Launceston prison initially and later in St. Michael's Mount.
(February) Hopton advances from Stratton to Torrington en route to Exeter, but is driven out by Fairfax's men, and falls back to Stratton. Fairfax proceeds into Cornwall reaching Launceston (25th February), Bodmin (2nd March) and St. Austell (3rd March). Oliver Cromwell came with 500 Dragoons and 1000 horsemen to take and hold the bridge at Wadebridge. Cornish Royalist leaders realised that they were losing the war and surrendered the east of Cornwall to the Parliamentarians at Millbrook. Hopton's army is in disarray but he refuses to surrender. News at Bodmin of an imminent Irish invasion further damages the Royalist cause locally and Fairfax offers Hopton terms. Surrender of the Royalist forces to the Parliamentarians takes place at Tresillian Bridge near Truro on 15th March.
(April) The siege of Pendennis Castle began and lasted for five months. Parliamentary forces attacked the castle from both land and sea and it finally surrendered on 17th August 1646.
Plague in Penzance again.
(16th May) The Gear Rout - The last Cornish armed uprising following the end of the English Civil War involving some 500 rebels who fought against the Parliamentarian forces of Sir Hardress Waller at sites in Penzance and near the Helford River. The Parliamentarians defeated both risings. To show that Cornish resistance had been crushed, Parliamentarian soldiers marched through Penryn with Cornish hurling balls stuck on the ends of their swords.
Plague hits St. Austell.
(30th January) Charles I is executed. There follows eleven years of rule by Parliament as the Commonwealth under Cromwell.
(30th January) HMS 'Garland' carrying the wardrobe of the Prince of Wales was wrecked at Godrevy. She was taking shelter off St. Ives in a great storm and dragged her anchors. Only a man, boy and wolf–dog survived out of about 60 passengers and crew.
The Stannary regulations were abolished, coinage duty as well as pre-emption, and there followed a decade of unprecedented prosperity when the price of tin doubled and production reached a record levels.
Reverend Hugh Peters baptised at Fowey in 1598 becomes Chaplain to Oliver Cromwell. Author of numerous publications, his life ends by hanging and decapitation at Charing Cross in 1660.
Battle of Plymouth off Cornish coast, part of First Anglo-Dutch War.
William Hals, the historian, is born at Tresawsen, Merther, near Truro. Part of his projected History of Cornwall is published in 1750, covering 72 parishes alphabetically from Advent to Helston. A manuscript for Illogan survives but the remainder is unfinished.
(March) The English man-o'-war, 'Primrose' lost her main topmast off the Longships and drifted onto the Seven Stones. She managed to free herself from the reef and sank in 60 fathoms taking sixteen men, two women and a child with her.
(3rd September) Death of Oliver Cromwell. He is succeeded by his son Richard Cromwell.
(May) Richard Cromwell is forced to resign. The Rump Parliament is restored.
(29th May) Charles II returns to England from Holland and is restored to the throne.
(20th August) The names of Smithike and Penny-come-quick changed to Falmouth by Charles II's proclamation.
The population of Cornwall is now 118,000 persons.
The village of Flushing near Falmouth is founded.
Falmouth received its charter from King Charles II.
(18th January) The cargo ship 'Royal Oak' was sunk at the Isles of Scilly.
Great Plague reaches West Cornwall.
(7th October) The 'Santo Christo de Costello', a Genoese merchant vessel sailing from Amsterdam to Genoa on its maiden voyage with a general cargo, was driven ashore at Mullion Cove. Twenty five of the 120 people on board drowned, with the remainder escaping on the ship's boats.
(3rd November) Walter Moyle is born at Bake near St. Germans. He became an English politician and political writer, an advocate of classical republicanism.
(August) John Harris dies aged 46, he was an English politician from near Liskeard who sat in the House of Commons from 1661 to 1677.
(4th April) John Godolphin dies aged 61. He was an English jurist and writer, an admiralty judge under the Commonwealth.
(20th September) Thomas Tonkin is born at Trevance, near Wadebridge. He served as an MP for Helston. He also advocated that copper should be smelted in Cornwall instead of being taken to Bristol and to Wales, and that it should be brought within the stannary laws.
(23rd August) Sir John Coryton, 1st Baronet of Newton, dies aged 58.
(December) A cargo vessel was wrecked off St. Agnes on the Isles of Scilly. The lighthouse keeper on St. Agnes was found guilty of negligence for being inattentive to the light and for plundering some of the cargo.
Francis Buller of Saltash dies aged 52, he was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1659 and 1679.
(9th February) The East Indiaman 'the President' ran aground on the Loe Bar near Porthleven. She was carrying a valuable cargo of spices.
(6th February) James II succeeds his brother, Charles II.
(February) The ship 'Prinses Maria' sank in shallow water within the Western Rocks on the Isles of Scilly. King James II sent his yacht to salvage some of the cargo and in 1973 a diving team recovered coins, iron cannon and timbers.
Imprisonment in Tower of London of Jonathan Trelawny for refusing to sign a paper to bring back Catholicism as official religion - acquitted.
(10th June) James Francis Edward, the Old Pretender becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
Falmouth is selected as the most westward port for packets to carry mails to the Groyne (Corunna), and was named The Royal Mail Packet Station, the first sailing being in January 1689.
(11th April) William and Mary become joint King and Queen after King James II abdicates and flees to exile in France.
Mapmaker George Withiell is commissioned to make a new map of Falmouth to keep track of the new town which was rapidly expanding.
Sir John Coryton, 2nd Baronet of Newton, dies aged 58.
(17th January) Richard Lower, famous for his medical studies and work, dies aged 60.
(3rd September) HMS 'Coronation' foundered off Rame Head while at anchor in a south–east gale with the loss of approximately 600 lives.
(28th April) The first ship named HMS 'Cornwall' is launched at Southampton.
(28th December) Death of Queen Mary, William III now rules alone.
Thomas Martyn, a topographer, is born in Gwennap near Redruth. He is noted for his 'New and accurate map of the County of Cornwall from actual survey' published in a number of editions and scales, from 1748 to 1784. He dies aged 56 at Ashburton, Devon, in 1751.
(9th November) Mary Vivian of Trewan Hall, St. Columb Major, marries a distant cousin Sir Richard Vyvyan, 3rd Baronet of Trewlowarren. Thus uniting two branches of the family which had been separated for three centuries.
The first lighthouse is built on the Eddystone Reef by Henry Winstanley.
Joel Gascoyne publishes a map of Cornwall commissioned by John Robartes, 1st Earl of Radnor and set new standards in county map making.
Eddystone Lighthouse is re-built with a new stone clad exterior by Henry Winstanley.
(30th May) Hugh Boscawen a Member of Parliament for Cornwall dies aged 76.
(22nd August) Sir John Grenville dies aged 73. Two weeks after his death his son and heir Charles Grenville shot himself, apparently overwhelmed by the debts he had inherited.
(8th March) Anne succeeds her brother-in-law, William III.
The first Falmouth Packet service across the Atlantic to the West Indies.
The 32nd (Cornwall) Regiment of Foot was first raised by Colonel Edward Fox as Edward Fox’s Regiment of Marines to fight in the War of Spanish Succession.
(14th April) Daniel Gumb is born at Linkinhorne. Raised as a stone-cutter, he makes a name for himself as a self-taught mathematician. He makes his home carving out a cave by The Cheesewring. The roof serves as an observatory, and the whole as a place where he can study uninterrupted but near to his work. He becomes more reclusive and the home also serves as a chapel for him as he was never seen to attend the parish church. His wife and several children also live in the rock dwelling.
(17th June) John Wesley was born in the rectory at Epworth, Lincolnshire, the 15th child of the British clergyman Samuel Wesley.
(27th November) A violent storm, the tail end of an American hurricane results in damaged houses, ships being driven ashore and the destruction of Eddystone Lighthouse killing six occupants, including its builder Henry Winstanley. A ship torn from its moorings in the Helford River was blown for 200 miles before grounding eight hours later on the Isle of Wight.
Grant to Anthony Nicoll for two fairs or markets at St. Tudy.
(December) Sidney Godolphin was titled Earl of Godolphin for his work with Marlborough in bringing about the union of England and Scotland.
(21st October) HMS 'Devonshire' sank after a battle off Lizard Point against a French fleet of twelve ships.
(22nd October) HMS 'Association', the flagship of Sir Cloudesley Shovel, wrecked on the Isles of Scilly with a loss of 800 lives, along with three other ships of the 21 strong fleet: HMS 'Firebrand', 'Eagle' and 'Romney'. In all, approximately 2,000 men died that night.
Grant in fee for Robert Hooker, gent. of three fairs at Camborne.
(9th December) The East Indiaman 'Albemarle' was blown ashore with a valuable cargo of diamonds, coffee, pepper, silk and indigo near Polperro.
The thatched Friends' Meeting House at Come-to-Good, near Feock is built.
(27th August) Sir William Godolphin, 1st Baronet of Godoplhin dies at Godolphin House aged 70.
(6th December) Sir William Coryton, 3rd Baronet of Newton, dies aged 61.
(5th November) Charles Mohun, 5th Baron Mohun, is killed in a duel with the Duke of Hamilton. Mohun has previously been tried and cleared (1692-3) by the House of Peers for the murder of William Mountford.
The first harbour was built at Portreath.
John Williams is born. He becomes a successful mining engineer, and manager of Poldice and Gwennap mines. He is noted for driving the County Adit from Bissoe Bridge to drain the mines of Poldice, a task which lasts twenty years and the completed work, thirty miles long, takes in numerous branch adits and drains fifty mines.
(1st August) George I, the first Hanoverian King, succeeds his distant cousin, Queen Anne after she dies aged 49, at Kensington Palace. George Augustus, son of George I becomes the Duke of Cornwall. Naturally the legitimate heir James, son of James II of England, protested against this and those who believed in his rights took stronger steps than protestations, though they took a good year to get under way.
(3rd May) "The most celebrated eclipse ever recorded in England. Totality passed right across England from Cornwall to Norfolk".
(22nd September) The Jacobite uprising in Cornwall begins. John Anstis, MP for Launceston was arrested for plotting an uprising and on 6th October Sir Richard Vyvyan of Trelowarren, MP for Cornwall and the most influential Jacobite in the West, was taken and sent to London in the custody of a messenger. Mr James Paynter of Trekenning, proclaimed the Pretender in the market square at St. Columb Major. At this time the representative of the Government in Cornwall was Hugh Boscawen, of Tregothnan. He called out the militia and took measures which effectively put an end to any attempt at a rising.
John Buller (1632–1716) dies aged 84. He inherited from his father the Cornish estate of Shillingham near Saltash. He inherited from his first wife the Cornish estate of Morval, near Looe. He served six times as an MP for various towns in Cornwall. And he was appointed High Sheriff of Cornwall from November 1688 to March 1689.
Pendennis Castle struck by lightning and seriously damaged.
The Jacobite uprising in Cornwall of this year was the last uprising against the British Crown to take place. John Anstis, MP for Launceston was arrested for plotting an uprising and Sir Richard Vyvyan of Trelowarren, MP for Cornwall, the most influential Jacobite in the West, was taken and sent to London.
Thomas Newcomen comes to Cornwall to erect an atmospheric engine at Wheal Fortune Mine in Ludgvan.
Thomas Pitt, otherwise known as 'Diamond Pitt', (1653-1726) buys Boconnoc, near Lostwithiel, and other manors in Cornwall with the proceeds of the sale of a famous 127 carat diamond to the Regent of Orleans (later Louis XV) in 1716 for approximately £125,000. While Governor of Fort St. George, Madras, he had bought it for around £20,400. Thomas Pitt becomes the grandfather of William Pitt the Elder (statesman) and Great Grandfather of William Pitt the Younger (Prime Minister), and 2nd Baron Camelford (see 1775).
Ralph Allen devises the first cross-country postal service. Known as 'The Man of Bath', he was born in St. Blazey in 1693, becoming Post Master in Bath; Contractor for Cross Posts (1722-1764) and Mayor of Bath 1742.
Dolcoath, near Camborne, perhaps Cornwall's most celebrated mine, is already working and by 1778 is 160 fathoms deep. By 1864, equipped with its ten engines, seven water wheels, and a man-engine, it employs about 1200 people. Underground working ceases in 1920 by which time the bottom level is at 550 fathoms, the deepest of all the Cornish mines.
Mining is in operation by this time at Botallack Mine on the cliff's edge near St. Just, and by 1800 the workings extended to over 100 fathoms and a long distance beneath the sea. It becomes one of Cornwall's richest tin mines. Operations finally end in 1914.
(10th November) The 127 foot HMS 'Royal Anne', the last oared fighting ship built for the Royal Navy, hit rocks off Lizard Point while en route to the West Indies with Lord Belhaven, the new Governor of Barbados. 182 crew and 25 gentlemen died and there were only three survivors.
The ownership of Ince Castle was transferred to John Hobart 1st Earl of Buckinghamshire when the Nosworthys died leaving many debts.
A harbour is built for the tiny fishing cove of Coverack.
(11th June) George II succeeds his father, George I. Frederick Lewis, son of George II becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
St. Agnes un-maintained harbour was swept away into the sea.
Robert Corker of Falmouth dies aged 63, owing thousands to the Prince of Wales and the Duchy of Cornwall. He was an apprentice to a Falmouth merchant but lost all his money when he started a whale fishery of the coast of Cornwall. He was also MP for Bossiney for a while.
John Knill who instigated the five yearly celebrations at his mausoleum near St. Ives, is born at Callington. He becomes Collector of Customs at St. Ives and is elected Mayor in 1767. Resigning his Customs post in 1782 around which time he arranges the erection of a mausoleum on Worvas Hill as he "abhorred the practice of burial within the body of the church" which prevailed in St. Ives at the time. He moves to London and buys chambers in Gray's Inn Square and is called to the Bar in 1787. In 1811 he dies aged 78 and is buried at Holborn, not St. Ives.
(3rd March) Thomas Pitt, 1st Baron Camelford is born at Boconnoc.
The Sherborne Mercury newspaper commences publication in Dorset. It includes Cornish news and advertising, and circulates throughout the south west of England. It continues until 1867.
The Killigrew Monument or Pyramid is erected in Falmouth.
(21st November) The 'Vigilantia' bound for Hamburg from Lisbon with a cargo of salt, tobacco, sugar and lemons was wrecked west of Porthleven with the loss of the captain, three crew and all the cargo. Five men were saved.
(22nd May) Sir John Coryton, 4th Baronet of Newton, dies aged 49.
Expansion of deep copper mining in Cornwall. This heralds the Industrial Revolution in Britain.
Fearing a Spanish attack the corporation built a battery of guns, on rocks near the Old Quay, to defend Penzance.
(18th May) Malachy Hitchins is born at Gwennap near Redruth. He later becomes an astronomer and mathematician. He was also involved the production of the Nautical Almanac.
Redruth Brewery was founded by William Davey. By the middle of the 19th century, the brewery had expanded to include three malt houses, counting houses, an engine and boiler house, sheds, a carpenter's shop, beer store, aerated water factory, water tank and water reservoir.
(9th March) The 'Nancy' carrying spirits, hemp, iron and gunpowder caught fire and blew up at New Grimsby in the Isles of Scilly. There was damage to several ships in the vicinity.
(13th June) The Dutch East India Ship 'Hollandia' was wrecked off the Isles of Scilly. The entire ship's company of 276 - crew, soldiers and passengers - all perished. In 1971 Rex Cowan found the wreck, and discovered a large quantity of silver coins, along with bronze cannons and mortars.
The Jacobite rising of 1745, often referred to as "the Forty-five", was the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the exiled House of Stuart. The rising occurred during the War of the Austrian Succession when most of the British Army was on the European continent. These plans were kept secret from Sir John St. Aubyn (a Member for Cornwall and owner of tin mines) and Sir William Carew (a Member for Cornwall).
Work starts on a 600 foot long pier for Penzance.
William Cookworthy, (A Kingsbridge Quaker who began a wholesale chemist's business in Plymouth around 1733), having researched the Chinese manufacture of porcelain, obtains kaolin from Virginia in America, then he locates china clay and china-stone deposits on the western side of Tregonning Hill in Germoe parish, near Helston. On a later journey to Cornwall he finds much larger quantities in the vicinity of St. Stephen-in-Brannel and St. Dennis, near St. Austell.
(3rd May) Admiral Boscawen wins fame at Cape Finisterre by singly engaging the French fleet until the English fleet arrive.
Shipwrights from Fowey harbour are recruited to work at the new navy dockyard in Plymouth.
(December) The 'Jonge Alcida' ran aground near Porthleven and its cargo plundered.
The Lizard lighthouse is re-built.
(9th July) Sir Evan Nepean, 1st Baronet was born in St. Stephens near Saltash. He later became a British politician and colonial administrator.
'Antiquities of Cornwall' by William Borlase, published.
The first turnpike Act for Cornish roads was introduced, dealing with roads in Truro.
(12th December) The brig 'Adventure Kingdom' carrying hemp, iron and tallow from Peterburgh sank as she entered her home port of St. Michael's Mount.
(1st November) The Lisbon Earthquake strikes at about 09:40 hours. Its magnitude is somewhere between eight and nine on the Richter Scale, the epicentre being some 125 miles west of Cape St. Vincent. It has knock-on effects throughout Europe, mostly in the form of flooding. Further damage is done by a Tsunami hitting the city and this is followed by several massive fires. In Cornwall, at St. Michael's Mount, at about 14:00 hours, the sea is observed to rise suddenly and then to retire. After ten minutes the sea rises nearly six feet, very rapidly coming in from the South East; it then ebbs again to the West with the same speed for about ten minutes, until it is nearly six feet lower than before. It returns again, and falls again in the same space of time, and continues to do so for some five hours after. In Penzance the tide rises some eight feet, at Newlyn Pier some ten feet. The same effect is reported at St. Ives and Hayle somewhat later.
(2nd December) The wooden Eddystone Lighthouse burns down.
A large work-house was built at Bodmin on the Friary lands now belonging to the corporation, at the expense of Sir William Irby.
(17th July) Benjamin Franklin landed at Falmouth on his way to America.
(9th August) Francis Basset (son of Sir Francis Basset) is born at Tehidy. He later becomes Francis Basset-Bt. Lord de Dunstanville and has a 90 foot granite monument erected to him at the summit of Carn Brea.
The Cornish Copper Company established premises at the eastern end of Hayle where they smelted copper, later diversifying into iron founding. The two companies competed fiercely for more than a century, particularly over the use of harbour quays, dividing the town's loyalties between themselves and Harvey and Company. The two companies merged in 1867.
'Natural History of Cornwall' by William Borlase, published.
(29th May) Sir Christopher Hawkins, 1st Baronet is born. He was to become a Cornish landowner, mine-owner, Tory Member of Parliament, and patron of steam power.
Pirates visited Penzance.
The current harbour is built at Portreath.
The Orangery is built in the Italian gardens at Mount Edgcumbe.
(25th October) George III becomes King on the death of his grandfather, George II.
Reverend Richard Polwhele, who becomes the Vicar of Manaccan (1794-1821) and Newlyn East (1821-1838) and the author of a two-volume seven-part History of Cornwall, a similar work on Devon and many other books, is born at Truro.
(10th January) Admiral Edward Boscawen dies aged 50. A hero of his time, he assists in the capture of Porto Bello in 1740, commands a party which storms Carthagena in 1747 capturing two batteries, becomes Commander-in-Chief of the Navy in 1758, and, with General Wolff, captures Louisberg and in 1759 beats the French fleet in Port Lagos.
John Wesley first visits Gwennap Pit in 1762, and thereafter eighteen times until his last visit in 1798 at the age of 86. In the entry in his Journal for Sunday 22nd August 1773 he estimates that 'two and thirty thousand' were present, and other dates record upwards of 20,000 in attendance. The pit we see today was remodelled by local tin miners and their helpers, re-opening on Whit Monday 1807. The annual Whit Monday service is still a feature of the local Methodist calendar.
(12th August) George Augustus Frederick, son of George III becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
Thomas Bond was born at Looe, he became a historian and for nearly 40 years Town Clerk of both East Looe and West Looe.
(6th March) Davies Gilbert (Giddy) PRS FAS FGS is born at St. Erth. He becomes a national figure of the Industrial Revolution, an antiquarian, the President of the Royal Society, and MP for Bodmin. He later served as High Sheriff of Cornwall. He chairs several parliamentary committees concerning, for instance, the building of roads, steam power, feeding the population, and the Poor Laws. He moves in the same circles as Boulton and Watt, Peel and Canning, and Darwin, and many others; he is patron of Cornish inventors like Richard Trevithick and Jonathan Hornblower and he discovers Humphry Davy.
(January) William Hennah is born at St. Austell. He became a British naval officer, whose largely undistinguished career was suddenly highlighted by his assumption of command of HMS 'Mars' at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805 upon the death of that ship's captain, George Duff, who was decapitated by a cannonball.
William Cookworthy takes out a patent for the making of porcelain using Cornish china clay, and this and the establishment of a (short-lived) porcelain factory in Plymouth is greatly supported by the Honorable Thomas Pitt of Boconnoc (later Lord Camelford) who grants Cookworthy a lease on his land in St. Stephen.
The first Jewish Synagogue in Penzance was built.
John Carter is born at Breage near Helston, he matured to become one of the biggest rogues on the coast, the self styled King of Prussia.
The 123 feet high obelisk commemorating Thomas Pitt, Lord Camelford, is erected at Boconnoc.
The St. Columb Canal, proposed by John Edyvean, is authorised and planned to run from Mawgan Porth through parishes inland and to return to St. Columb Porth. Its purpose is to import sea-sand for manuring to improve land. Two sections are built. One, from Trenance Point to near Whitewater, and the other from Lusty Glaze to near Rialton Barton in St. Columb Minor.
John Edyvean an engineer from Cornwall, designed and invented the inclined plane system, to reduce the necessity for locks within the Bude canal system. He started building work on the St. Columb Canal, but died in the 1780's before it was completed.
William Cookworthy passes his patent for making porcelain from Cornish china clay to Richard Champion, prompting the interest of Josiah Wedgewood, the distinguished Staffordshire potter. Following a legal battle, Champion loses his monopoly over the Cornish materials.
(19th February) Thomas Pitt, 2nd and last Baron Camelford is born at Boconnoc, near Lostwithiel. He becomes a Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, leads a short but remarkably adventurous life, and is mortally wounded in a duel with a friend Captain Best in 1804, behind Holland House, London.
(28th July) Richard Hussey Vivian (afterwards General Lord Vivian) is born at Truro. During a distinguished military career he became MP for Truro (1820-25) and Windsor (1825-30), and later a Privy Councillor (1834), Master General of Ordnance (1835) and MP for East Cornwall (1837-41) at which time he was created Baron Vivian of Glynn.
Dolly Pentreath, who dies aged 85 in this year, is often claimed to be the last speaker of the Cornish language. However, William Bodinar who dies in 1794 knows five people in Mousehole who speak the language. Others claim knowledge of it as late as the 1890's. It is probably safe to say that the last native speakers are alive in the late 19th century. However, the Education Act of 1870 makes the teaching of English compulsory in all schools.
James Watt erects his first pumping engine in a Cornish mine at Great Wheal Busy near Chacewater, one of the oldest of Cornwall's copper mines. It replaces a Newcomen engine installed by John Smeaton. By now, the mine has worked at various times from 1700 and continues to do so until 1900.
Bodmin Jail is opened as the new county jail.
Scottish engineer, William Murdoch, (born in Ayrshire in 1754) comes to Cornwall in the employment of Boulton and Watt.
(November) William Esco Treffry dies aged 59.
Scorrier House near Redruth is built by the mining tycoon John Williams after profiting spectacularly from a sudden tin price rise, enlarging it substantially in 1845. After a serious fire in 1908, it is re-built.
(17th October) William Cookworthy dies aged 75.
(20th November) While carrying Portland stone to Dublin, the Weymouth brig 'Charming Molly' was stranded and lost on Bryher.
(18th February) Henry Martyn is born in Truro, he later becomes a missionary in India.
Jonathan Hornblower who lived in Chacewater developed a compound steam engine (the double-beat steam valve). He was originally prevented from pursuing his invention by litigation with James Watt. However following the expiration of Boulton and Watt's patent, Hornblower's compound steam engine principle was used in steam engine efficiency.
An oil-fed wick is developed and used for the first time on Eddystone Lighthouse.
(24th January) The brig 'Oldenburger' carrying a general cargo from St. Vincent to Ostend went ashore on Tresco in New Grimsby harbour.
(15th April) Maria Branwell, Mother of the Brontes is born in Penzance.
(10th August) An earthquake is felt in the Launceston area.
(26th February) The packet ship 'Nancy', carrying actress Ann Cargill and her young child, struck the Gilstone in the Western Rocks and sank in deeper water near Rosevear Ledges on the Isles of Scilly.
(9th August) William Hamley, founder of Hamleys toyshop is born in Bodmin.
Mail coaches were seen for the first time in Cornwall.
(April) The prolific smuggler Thomas Welland, in his armed lugger 'Happy go Lucky' ,was killed in a gun battle near Mullion Island by men of the Revenue cutters 'Hawk' and 'Lark'. The rest of the crew were captured, and on board were found many illegal fighting cocks.
(25th August) James Silk Buckingham, MP, journalist and reformer, is born at Flushing near Penryn.
(December) The 'Metta Catharina' was blown onto a dangerous underwater reef off Mount Edgcumbe. The captain and crew were able to escape to safety.
(24th December) The brigantine 'Duke of Cornwall' of Penzance hit the Bartholomew Ledge and was beached on St. Agnes. She was the Duke of Cornwall's private tin ship and was carrying a general cargo from London for Falmouth and Penzance, in the teeth of a violent gale. The crew were saved but little of her cargo was retrieved for the proprietors. Also on the same day the brig 'Betsy' from Chester, and heading for London, was lost between the Bartholomew Ledge and Perconger, St. Agnes. She was carrying lead blocks and empty casks.
Riots at Poldice mine due to the copper price depression.
(28th February) The 'Star Cross' was wrecked off Manacle Point on The Lizard Peninsula.
Assembly Rooms are built in Truro.
(January) James Ruse, a Launceston man, is deported on the first Australian convict ship.
John Wesley's last visit to Cornwall.
(16th August) A great fire in Church Street, Falmouth extends up Well Lane, and as far as the present Public Rooms.
(25th August) King George III and Queen Charlotte visited Cotehele House.
William Gregor discoveries manaccanite, now know as Titanium at Manaccan, on the Lizard Peninsula.
John Williams who constructed the Great County Adit, dies aged 76.
An Act of Parliament formed a body of men called Improvement Commissioners with powers to clean and light the streets of Truro.
(2nd March) John Wesley preacher of Methodism dies in London aged 87.
Cornwall County Library is founded at Pydar Street, Truro, with nearly 30 subscribers, minimum subscription one guinea, and survived until 1920. In that time the library moved to Princes Street and then to the Public Rooms, situated between Quay Street and the Green.
(21st August) A great fire destroyed 42 houses and the theatre in Falmouth.
A public meeting is held at Bodmin which resolves that a canal linking the River Camel to the River Fowey at Wadebridge would be advantageous. Sir William Molesworth arranges surveying and costings and plans are sent to John Rennie for comment. It all comes to nothing, but Marc Isambard Brunel surveys the Padstow - Fowey route in 1825 for a ship canal, proposing one 13 miles long. This too is not taken further.
In Truro the building of Boscawen Street and Lemon Street is started.
(29th September) First Longships Lighthouse completed.
A Butter Market is built in Redruth.
The American engineer and inventor, Robert Fulton, with the surveyor Charles Moody, examined the practicality of building a canal from the Helford River at Gweek to the Hayle River near St. Erth. It was not proceeded with.
"On Saturday 20th August at twenty minutes past two o'clock (pm) a slight Shock of an Earthquake was felt at St. Hilary near Penzance, which lasted two or three seconds being in the middle space of a rumbling noise which attended it and which lasted six or seven seconds. The Motion was from East to West. The Air was still. The Thermometer at 70" - St. Hilary parish records.
A Polperro boat called the 'Lottery' was involved in an incident in which a Customs Officer was killed. One of the crew, Tom Potter, was later tried for murder at the Old Bailey and executed.
A new harbour is constructed at St. Agnes.
(12th August) The Royal Cornwall Infirmary at Truro was opened to serve Cornwall's mining community and the poor. It had twenty beds, ten for women, and ten for men, on separate floors, and it was funded by subscription. In its first year, forty seven patients were admitted.
(13th April) The collier 'North Star' struck a rock and later sank at the pier on St. Michael's Mount. Her cargo was salvaged.
The Cornwall Gazette and Falmouth Packet newspaper commences publication in Truro, becomes the Royal Cornwall Gazette in 1803 and continues until 1951 when it is incorporated into The West Briton.
Lemon Street is built in Truro as a new road into the centre of the city with an easier gradient for coaches.
The population of Cornwall is now 192,281 persons.
(12th February) The 'Fortune' struck the Seven Stones reef while carrying a general cargo from Dublin to London. Her crew were rescued by a Yarmouth brig while the 'Fortune' sank with the loss of two Tresco pilots who were attempting to save the ship.
Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) runs his road locomotive from Leather Lane, London - to Islington and back.
Trerice House is sold to the Acland family of Killerton in Devon.
Richard Trevithick invents a high pressure steam dredge.
(3rd December) Reverend Robert Stephen Hawker, the noted vicar of Morwenstow, is born in Plymouth. Famed as a poet,and particularly for The Song of the Western Men ('Trelawny'), he is remembered for risking his life to help shipwrecked mariners, supporting his impoverished parishioners, and for reviving harvest-time festivals. He dies in 1875. His cliff-top hut is a National Trust property.
(February) The frigate HMS 'Fearless' was driven ashore near Redding Point on the Rame peninsula with the loss of one man.
(21st February) Richard Trevithick runs his railway locomotive at Penydarren in Wales.
Glynn House, near Bodmin Parkway (formerly Bodmin Road) Railway Station is re-built by Edmund John Glynn.
(November) The first announcement of the death of Nelson was made from the balcony of the Union Hotel, Penzance.
(November) The news of the Battle of Trafalgar and Nelson's death was sent overland from Falmouth to the Admiralty in London. The Trafalgar Way is the name given to the historic route used to carry the dispatches. The first messenger was Lieutenant Lapenotiere, of HMS 'Pickle', who reached Falmouth on the 4th November.
(9th April) The famous painter John Opie dies aged 46.
(29th December) The wreck of the frigate, HMS 'Anson' which went aground with the loss of 120 sailors on The Loe Bar near Porthleven, is witnessed by Henry Trengrouse, the Helston cabinet maker. The terrible loss of life spurs him on to devise at his own expense a line-throwing apparatus to be propelled across any stricken vessel by a rocket. His successful experiments in 1816 pave the way for saving the lives of thousands of seamen. Like Richard Trevithick before him, he dies aged 82 in poverty in 1854.
(15th April) The vessel 'Hermanest August' bound for London from Porto with a cargo of wine and cork was wrecked near Porthleven. Nine of the eleven crew drowned along with two local men trying to save them.
The Board of Trade decreed that Falmouth was to become a compulsory pilotage area. The first pilot's licence was issued on 22nd December.
(22nd January) HMS 'Primrose', an 18-gun Cruiser, was wrecked and sank after striking the Manacle rocks off The Lizard, with only one of the 126 on board surviving. Also on the same night HMS 'Dispatch' was wrecked on the same reef.
(25th October) The first rails are laid by John Williams for the Poldice Tramway to serve the St. Day mines, providing a horse-drawn rail link (for goods and minerals) to the port of Portreath. It falls into disuse in the 1850's.
The West Briton newspaper commences publication at Truro.
(23rd May) Sir William Molesworth who later served as High Sheriff of Cornwall, is born.
(September) Sickness and bankruptcy forced Richard Trevithick and his family to leave London and return to Cornwall where he continued to develop new machines.
(24th October) Men of the packet service at Falmouth mutinied over pay levels.
(25th October) A huge granite rock north of Blisland is carved by locally based soldier, Lieutenant John Rogers to celebrate the golden jubilee of King George III.
Joseph Mallord William Turner toured Cornwall studying artwork and gallery's centring on St. Ives.
(21st February) The HMS 'Franchise' struck a transport ship off Falmouth during a gale resulting in the loss of 269 lives. Franchise herself suffered little damage and no casualties.
(17th November) William Colenso FRS was born in Penzance he became a Cornish Christian missionary to New Zealand, and also a printer, botanist, explorer and politician.
The population of Cornwall is now 220,525 persons.
Work is re-started at Great Wheal Vor Mine near Tregonning Hill. By 1820 it employs over 500 men underground. In the 1860's it is described as 'probably the richest tin mine in the world' by the Mining Journal. It closes in 1877, although part of the sett sees limited working at the end of the 19th century.
(8th April) A Knighthood is given to Humphry Davy by the Prince Regent, King George III being insane.
Richard Trevithick designed the 'Cornish boiler'. These were horizontal, cylindrical boilers with a single internal fire tube or flue passing horizontally through the middle. Hot exhaust gases from the fire passed through the flue thus increasing the surface area heating the water and improving efficiency. These types were installed in the Boulton and Watt pumping engines at Dolcoath Mine and more than doubled their efficiency.
Refined soap is invented by William Pears of Mevagissey.
The worlds first steam powered rock boring machine was built by Harvey's of Hayle.
The Cornwall Central School is founded in Fairmantle Street, Truro, as Cornwall's first Anglican elementary school. It trains men and women teachers and, with a move to Agar Road, evolves into the Truro Training College which closes in 1938.
The Royal Geological Society of Cornwall was founded by Dr. Paris.
(21st August) Lostwithiel Town Police Sergeant Joseph Burnett died aged 42. He was fatally shot attempting to disarm two drunken soldiers threatening people.
(15th July) Napoleon Bonaparte was brought into Falmouth Harbour on board HMS 'Northumberland' afer his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.
(18th September) HMS 'Whiting' was sent to patrol the Irish Sea for smugglers. She grounded on the Doom Bar at Padstow. When the tide rose, she was flooded and deemed impossible to re-float and was wrecked.
(January) The 'Resolution', a brigantine sailing from Oporto to London carrying wine and fruit was wrecked on the west Lizard Coast. Locals attacked the ship taking away all the property of the Captain and crew, and most of the cargo of wine and in two days damaged the ship beyond repair.
(7th December) Captain William Bligh dies aged 63 and is buried in Lambeth in London.
(March) The steeple at Warleggan church is struck by lightning during a tremendous thunderstorm, part of the tower fell through the roof and started a fire which caused considerable damage.
Morrab Library in Penzance was founded and is financed through membership subscriptions.
Torpoint's chapel-of-ease, dedicated to St. James the Great, is erected. Its north and south galleries are removed in the 1930's.
Tresavean Mine, near Lanner, worked through much of the 18th century, is said to have already produced over £1,500,000-worth of copper ore. In the 1830's it is for a while the third largest copper producer in Cornwall, employing over 1300 people. By 1860 another £1,500,000-worth of ore has been sold. Working finally ends in 1927. From 1819 to 1840 the Consolidated Mines of Gwennap, worked as a number of smaller concerns from the 1750's, are the richest of all the Cornish copper mines, and for many years richest of the whole world. Ores to the value of £2,250,000 are sold. By 1838 63 miles of underground workings have been driven, and the mine employs 2000 persons.
Harvey's build new quays at Hayle harbour.
(29th January) George IV accedes to the throne, having spent the last nine years as Prince Regent for his blind and deranged father and becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
Silas E Martin of Crantock proposes a canal from Newquay to Retyn near St. Enoder to serve the then-prospering East Wheal Rose lead and silver mine and carry sea-sand for the land. John Edgcumbe carried out a survey but no action was then taken.
The population of St. Michael's Mount peaked with the island having 221 persons living on it. There were three schools, a Wesleyan chapel, and three public houses, mostly used by visiting sailors.
Launceston Castle will no longer be used for hangings.
The population of Cornwall is now 261,045 persons.
Wheal Fortune and Wheal Chance were consolidated by Joseph Treffry to form Fowey Consolidated Mine.
Truro gained gas street lighting
(24th March) John Passmore Edwards of Blackwater near Redruth, journalist and philanthropist, is born. He amasses his fortune as a publisher and devotes his resources to helping the public library and cottage hospitals movements in particular. He realises his aim of establishing a library for every one of the 19 letters in his name (for instance at Penzance, St. Ives, Camborne, Redruth, Truro, Falmouth, and Bodmin) as well as village Institutes to help the education of the miners (Blackwater, St. Agnes, Chacewater etc.) and cottage hospitals (Liskeard, Perranporth etc.). Most were in Cornwall, but several were in London. Many of the buildings that he paid for are still in use for their original purpose.
(November) The Isles of Scilly experience very heavy gales, which cause the loss of roofs and chimneys.
A group of sailors the worse for drink climbed up to Logan Rock at Porthcurno armed with crowbars and dislodged it, allowing it to fall down the cliff. Such was the disgust of the local people at this blatant act of vandalism, that they complained to the Admiralty and ordered them to replace the rock at their own expense. It took 60 labourers seven months to replace it.
(22nd November) In a storm three houses were destroyed in Polperro, the whole of one pier and half the other were swept away and nearly 50 boats in the harbour were dashed to pieces.
Porthleven Harbour is completed after 15 years of difficulties during the construction.
A causeway is built around Hayle estuary to avoid the dangerous crossing on the sands.
An explosives factory is opened at Herodsfoot near Liskeard.
Richard Trevithick arrives back in England, penniless.
St. Paul's church at Chacewater is erected, and is later repaired in 1886 following a lightning strike. Except for the tower, it is completely re-built in 1892 to the design of Edmund Sedding. Nearby St. Day church is built. Its original galleries are removed in 1930 and it was condemned in 1956 as unsafe and closed. A preservation scheme of the 1990's sees it re-open as stabilised ruin with a historical display. In west Penwith, Morvah church, dedicated to St. Bridget of Sweden is constructed.
(27th July) King William IV and Queen Adelaide make a visit to Mount Edgcumbe.
(27th November) Thomas Spry of Place Manor, a Captain in the Royal Navy, dies aged 76.
(29th May) Sir Humphry Davy of safety lamp fame, dies aged 51.
(26th June) William IV succeeds his brother, George IV, at the age of 64.
Richard and John Lander (born in Truro in 1804 and 1807 respectively) go out to Africa to discover the course of the Niger and become the first to find its source in November, returning home in June 1831.
St. Martin-in-Meneage church is erected, with the 15th century tower of an older building remaining.
Penzance gains gas street lights and a piped water supply.
(December) Severe storms across the whole of southern England cause about twenty shipwrecks in a few days along the south coast of Cornwall.
William Bickford (born in Devonshire in 1744) who is a leather merchant in Tuckingmill (near. Camborne) devised and patented the Safety Fuse - in doing so, he saves countless miners and quarry workers from death.
(August) Cholera outbreak reaches Cornwall.
The population of Cornwall is now 301,306 persons.
Brenton Symons AICI is born at Rosehill, Gwennap. He is educated at Truro Grammar School, becomes a noted lithographer, assayer, draughtsman and mineralogist, Civil Engineer of the Chontales Mining Co., Central America, 1866-68, Managing Director of the Servian Copper Mining and Smelting Co, 1871, and publishes maps of Falmouth, the Redruth Mining District and the Bodmin and Liskeard District.
Since 1823 Gwennap Mine has produced 30.1% of the total production of Great Britain's copper, and 37.7% of the Cornwall total.
The Reform Act is introduced reducing the number of Cornish MP's from 42 to 12.
Construction of Newquay harbour begins.
(23rd December) Captain William Hennah dies. He became a British naval officer, whose largely undistinguished career was suddenly highlighted by his assumption of command of HMS 'Mars' at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805 upon the death of that ship's captain, George Duff, who was decapitated by a cannonball.
(22nd April) Richard Trevithick, Cornwall's greatest engineer, dies aged 62 in Dartford, Kent.
The Cornish Polytechnic Society in Falmouth is founded by 'the exertions of some ladies, among the most active of whom were the Misses Fox . . ' (reports RCPS, 1864). It was the first society to describe itself as 'polytechnic' and Miss Caroline Fox, (1820-1871), then aged thirteen, is credited with the idea.
Webb's Hotel, one of the finest in Cornwall, is built on the Parade at Liskeard.
Cholera breaks out at Falmouth.
(27th September) St. Just Wesleyan Methodist Chapel opens.
(24th November) Sir Richard Trevithick Tangye is born at Illogan, near Redruth. He became an engineer producing hydraulic jacks amongst other items along with his two brothers. He was the grandfather of the authors Derek Tangye and Nigel Tangye. Tangye lived in Birmingham after he married, and latterly London, but often returned to his cliff-edge house in Newquay. He died in 1906 aged 72.
(6th February) Richard Lemon Lander (who discovered the River Niger with his brother John) is killed by a bullet during a fight with natives.
The Isles of Scilly becomes the first place in Britain to have compulsory education, introduced by Augustus Smith (1804-1872) who acquired the lease on the Isles of Scilly from the Duchy of Cornwall for £20,000.
St. Mary's church at Hugh Town, Isles of Scilly, is begun at the instigation of William IV. Penzance's church of St. Mary-the-Virgin, designed by Charles Hutchins, is built on the site of the ancient chapel on the headland which gives the town its name. It is made parochial in 1871. Severely damaged by an arson attack on 23rd March 1985 when it is restored.
A new dry dock opened in Penzance.
Stithians agricultural show is established.
The West Briton joins the campaign against 'oppressive' Royal taxation in Cornwall and miners rally in London to protest.
Police forces are established in most towns across Cornwall.
(2nd October) HMS 'Beagle' anchored at Falmouth at the end of its famous survey voyage around the world.
(12th October) The brig 'Experiment' on her maiden voyage from Newfoundland to Poole with fish and oil was found drifting off the Isles of Scilly after losing her mast and taking on water. Three of the nine crew survived.
(20th June) Queen Victoria succeeds her uncle, William IV
Shire Hall at Bodmin is built.
Walsingham Place is built in Truro by Edmund Turner MP for Truro.
(16th October) The steam engine engineer Arthur Woolf dies aged 71.
The earliest known published reference to the Cornish Banner - the Cross of St. Piran.
The Redruth Union Workhouse at Barncoose, Illogan is constructed to the design of George Gilbert Scott. Its remaining buildings now form part of the Camborne-Redruth Community Hospital.
The new Bodmin Union workhouse was built to designs by William Dwelly and was intended to accommodate up to 250 inmates.
China clay production increases to around 13,000 tons a year from approximately 2,000 tons in the 1820's
Abolition of tin coinage (stannary), it was replaced by customs duties.
Construction of Newquay harbour is completed.
(May) Massive explosion at Kennall Vale Gunpowder Works at Ponsanooth due to an appalling accident at the works. "Five mills blew up in succession, and part of a roof was found a mile from the premises.
The Penzance Gazette newspaper commences publication, becoming the Penzance and Cornwall Gazette in 1855, and continues until 1858.
The Liskeard Union Workhouse is constructed, designed by John Foulston of Plymouth. It later becomes the Lamellion Hospital.
A chapel-of-ease for Liskeard parish is erected at Dobwalls.
Falmouth was the scene of a gold dust robbery when £47,600 worth of gold dust from Brazil was stolen on arrival at the port.
The St. Austell Union workhouse was built to the north of the town in Priory Road.
(10th August) Sir John St. Aubyn of Clowance dies aged 81. The Baronetcy became extinct on his death. However, his illegitimate son Edward was created a Baronet in his own right in 1866 and was the ancestor of the Barons St. Levan.
Trevemper bridge near Newquay is washed away by storm water. The two arches were repaired with only one arch.
Since 1823 Great Britain has produced 231,163 tons of copper, of which 198,200 tons, or 82.6%, have come from Cornwall's Mines.
(13th April) William and James Lightfoot were hanged at Bodmin Jail with an audience of 25,000 for the murder of businessman, Neville Norway. A special train was laid on to carry people from Wadebridge.
Significant emigration begins of Cornish Miners to Mexico and the Real del Monte silver mines; also to the iron mines of Lake Huron in Canada; and to the Wisconsin lead mines in America; and to Australia following the discovery of copper at Kapunda and Burra Burra.
(4th January) The Dublin steam packet SS 'Thames', en route from Dublin to London sank in a strong north-east gale off The Western Rocks on the Isles of Scilly. 62 of the 64 passengers and crew drowned when her Captain mistook the St. Agnes light for the Longships Lighthouse and changed course to head north. Pilot gig Whale, the only boat which managed to reach the wreck, saved three women. Her figurehead is in the Valhalla Museum at Tresco Abbey Gardens.
(9th November) Albert Edward, eldest son of Queen Victoria becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
The population of Cornwall is now 342,159 persons.
Children's Employment Commission publishes a report by Dr. Charles Barham (of Truro) examining employment of children and young persons in the mines of Cornwall and Devon.
(17th February) An earthquake is felt in the Helston area.
The Truro Dispensary was set up as a charity. Subscribers could nominate poor 'worthy' cases for medical and surgical care and free medicines.
(20th August) Sir Richard Hussey Vivian 1st Baron Vivian of Truro dies aged 67. He saw active service in the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, which earned him the thanks of both houses of Parliament, and many honours.
(8th September) The Scottish brig 'Caledonia' foundered on the rocks at Sharp nose Point, near Morwenstow. There was only one survivor.
(12th October) The 600-tonne paddle steamer 'Brigand', a packet boat, en route from Liverpool to St. Petersburg, struck the Bishop's Rock with such force that it stove in two large bow plates. The rocks then acted as a pivot, and she swung round and heeled into the rock port-side, crushing the paddle-wheel and box to such an extent that it penetrated the engine room. She drifted over seven miles in two hours, before sinking. All the crew were saved.
(28th January) Registered in Liverpool, the 'Douro' was travelling to Portugal with a declared cargo of textiles and munitions, but was wrecked on the Western Rocks on the Isles of Scilly. She had an undeclared cargo of brass manillas, a currency widely used in the slave trade on the West African Coast.
St. Piran's oratory was excavated before the site was engulfed by sand again.
(7th September) The brig 'Caledonia' was on a year-long voyage from Rio and Odessa, and was two days away from her destination of Gloucester when she wrecked on Sharpnose Point, Morwenstow with the loss of all the crew bar one. One of the memorials in Morwenstow churchyard was the white figurehead of the 'Caledonia'. The captain and crew are buried in the churchyard.
(1st October) Robert Stephen Hawker introduced the harvest festival service.
(21st November) The schooner 'Challenger' carrying fruit to her home port of London was wrecked on the Nundeeps, Isles of Scilly. Her crew of eight managed to row to Bryher with only one oar and the whole island was put under quarantine.
(20th October) Part of the Rame Peninsula including Cawsand and Mount Edgcumbe was in Devon until the Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844 was enforced, when the parish of Maker was transferred from Devon to Cornwall.
A new Market House is opened in St. Austell.
The first pan-kilns for the artificial drying of Cornish china clay are introduced at Greensplat and Parkandillick and by 1858 annual production increases to 65,600 tons from 89 active china clay works.
A new church is built at Illogan on a new site. The 14th century tower of the old one with a ring of six bells remains nearby.
(3rd August) The Cornwall Railway Act to build a railway through Cornwall received the Royal Assent.
(23rd September) John Couch Adams, born at Laneast in 1819, reported on his 1841-5 calculations regarding a new planet - Neptune. His submission to the Astronomer Royal was put aside until 1846 when calculations by the French scientist Le Verrier were verified.
(20th November) The 'Elizabeth Bergen' was wrecked while carrying a cargo of salt back to Norway. As the vessel tried to weather a storm it was blown aground at the base of the cliffs at Gunwalloe on the Lizard Peninsula and, according to reports at the time, was "smashed to matchsticks" within half an hour. The Master and three of the crew saved by breeches-buoy but two men and the boy were lost.
The Penzance Journal newspaper commences publication and continues until 1850.
(16th July) Devastating floods swept down from Davidstow Moor, caused terrible damage in Boscastle and washed away all but two of the bridges along the River Camel - Wadebridge and Helland being the only survivors.
Trevose Head Lighthouse completed.
(8th December) The 'Marchioness of Abercorn' was driven ashore at Crantock Beach in heavy gales, most of the crew were saved and the vessel was repaired and re-floated several weeks later.
St. Paul's church, Charlestown, designed by Christopher Eales is built and consecrated in 1851. A fibreglass spire is added to the completed tower in 1971, and a peal of six bells by Taylor of Loughborough in 1972. In the same year St. Mary's church at Par is erected to the design of G E Street, his first complete church.
Granite quarries started at Lamorna Cove.
(May) A huge explosion occurs at the gunpowder works at Herodsfoot near Liskeard demolishing the whole site and killing two men.
Holy Trinity church at Carnmenellis is erected to serve the thriving mining community. In the same year Herodsfoot All Saints is constructed for similar reasons. G E Street's church at Treverbyn, St. Austell, dedicated to St. Peter, is also built. Declining population around Carnmenellis in the 20th century leads to the eventual demolition of its church in 1970.
A religious preaching pit is constructed by local miners at Indian Queens.
(24th November) The 'Windrush' from Malaga was wrecked near Porthleven. The five crew members were all drowned and the wreck quickly became matchwood. It was carrying a cargo which included a large quantity of lemons and raisins and was recalled as the "Fruit wreck".
Period of greatest mining prosperity.
1850's - The greatest influx of Cornish miners to South Africa, to mine in the Namaqual and copper mines in the northern Cape.
(1st January) The 'Alessandro II Grande' was wrecked when she was blown on the Mare ledges, off the south shore of Tresco. There was no loss of life. The figurehead from the wreck, is of Tsar Alexander I and is now in the Valhalla Museum on Tresco.
The Census on Religious Worship showed that in Cornwall 27% are Anglicans. 60% are Methodists and the remaining are mostly non-conformists of other denominations.
(30th April) The last packet ship arrived at Falmouth. Instead, the Post Office contracted for the carriage of mail with companies running other regularly timetabled services.
West Wheal Basset near Redruth is re-started and yields good quantities of copper. By the 1860's it employs over 400 men. The adjacent South Wheal Frances is successfully worked at the same time.
The population of Cornwall is now 355,558 persons.
The bridge at Wadebridge was widened from 9.8 feet to 16.4 feet
(11th August) An earthquake is felt in the Callington area.
(12th May) General Sir Walter Raleigh Gilbert dies aged 68.
A new seven-arched stone bridge is opened in Looe.
(26th June) Edward William Wynne Pendarves Member of Parliament for West Cornwall, dies aged 78.
Work is started by Isambard Kingdom Brunel on building The Royal Albert Bridge at Saltash.
(14th February) Henry Trengrouse from at Helston dies aged 82. He became the inventor of the rocket line apparatus that fired a rope to stricken ships on the rocks, and enabled the crew to be taken off.
(November) Two steam engines named 'Miner' and 'Smelter' were bought by The Redruth and Chasewater Railway to replace the horses used up until this date.
(18th November) At Newlyn a 36 foot fishing boat called 'Mystery', sails 12,000 miles to Australia arriving in Melbourne on the 14th March 1855, with seven men leaving the collapsing tin industry behind. Five of them later returned to Cornwall.
(3rd May) The barque 'John' hit The Manacles rocks near St. Keverne with the loss of over 190 of its passengers, despite the efforts of the local fishermen.
Legal arguments of the Duchy of Cornwall defeat the Crown's aspirations of sovereignty of the Cornish foreshore. The Duchy argues that the Duke has sovereignty of Cornwall and not the Crown. During the same case, Parliament defines the Cornish as 'aborigines'.
Also on behalf of the Duchy, the following submission was made.
Thenceforth mineral rights above the Low Water Mark belonged to the Duchy and below it to the Crown.
(22nd January) The SS 'Czar' broke in half and sank after hitting Vroge Rocks during a south-westerly gale off the Lizard Peninsula.
John Verran, who becomes Premier of South Australia in 1910, is born at Cusgarne, Gwennap. Working in the Australian mines he becomes a strong trades unionist and is elected for Parliament in 1901, achieving leadership of the Labour Party in 1908. He dies aged 76 in 1932.
Year of maximum copper production, 209,000 tons of ore produced.
A new quay is built at East Looe to handle the demands of the shipping trade.
(6th October) Tamsin Blight from Gwennap, near Redruth, who one of Cornwall's most famous witches, dies aged 58. People believed that she had the power to read fortunes, find lost objects and cure illness. As a 'white witch', Tamsin only used her powers for good.
(15th November) Sir William Lewis Salusbury-Trelawny, 8th Baronet of Trelawny dies aged 75. He served as High Sheriff of Cornwall in 1811 and later sat as MP for Cornwall East from 1832 to 1837. He served as Lord-Lieutenant of Cornwall from 1839 to 1856.
(3rd January) The Cornish Times newspaper commences publication at Liskeard.
The china clay industry now employs about 1700 men producing an annual output of 68,000 tons
Cornwall County Constabulary is formed combining the police forces across Cornwall.
(February) St. Luke's Chapel is built about a mile south of Bolventor.
(February) The SS 'Cornubia' a 210 foot fast iron paddle steamer built by Harvey and Company at Hayle is launched.
Lake's Falmouth Packet Newspaper commences its publication in Falmouth.
Construction of Godrevy Lighthouse begun.
Bishop Rock Lighthouse completed at a cost of £34,560.
The Miners Association established by Robert Hunt FRS, and the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society.
The Camelford Union workhouse was built to the west of Camelford. It was a small establishment, accommodating up to 80 inmates
The Scilly Isles Steam Navigation Company is founded to provide shipping services between Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly.
(May) The Royal Albert Bridge, Saltash is Isambard Kingdom Brunel's spectacular solution to bridging the River Tamar to allow the connection of the railway through Cornwall with the rest of the GWR system. 2,200 feet long and 100 feet above the water, it is officially opened on 2nd May 1859 by HRH Prince Albert, having cost £225,000 and is opened to the public on 4th May 1859. Although there were through services, passengers had to change trains at Truro because of the change in gauge.
The East Cornwall Times newspaper commences publication in Launceston, and continues until 1877, when it is incorporated into the Cornish and Devon Post.
The foundation stone for Falmouth Docks was laid by Viscount Falmouth.
The first cottage hospital opens in Webb Street, Fowey. It is only the third in country.
The First and Last House is built at Land's End.
Marazion's All Saints church, designed by J P St. Aubyn, is built, replacing an old chapel-of-ease, which had become ruinous by 1735 and was re-built. In the same year St. Peter's church, Mithian is erected to a design by William White. Its spire is taken down in 1898 and a new three-stage tower is built in 1928.
(19th March) While on her second voyage and bound from Liverpool for New Orleans, the 846 ton sailing ship 'Award' struck rocks 1.5 miles off Gweal in the Isles of Scilly. After twelve hours the crew of twenty four managed to scramble ashore.
The population of Cornwall is now 369,390 persons.
'Cornwall Works' in Birmingham is built by the Tangye's, tool-makers of Illogan, near Camborne. The growth of their business follows success in moving Brunel's 'Great Eastern' ship from its stocks when all else had failed.
Cornwall's first Mining Exchange, where mining men could gather and transact business, is established in November in Camborne by Charles Carkeek in the former premises of the Miners' Bank. It closes around 1865. The Redruth Mining Exchange is established at the end of 1863 and its later premises in Alma Place still stand.
John Tabois Tregellas, 'the Cornish Matthews', a gifted lecturer and story-teller, dies aged 71 and is buried at Llantysilio in Wales. Born at St. Agnes in 1792, and a merchant and mine purser by trade, he is best known for his dialect stories - for example Specimens of Cornish provincial dialect (1846) and Peeps into the haunts and homes of the rural population of Cornwall (1879).
The Duchy of Cornwall Management Act confirms that the Duke possesses seigniory and territorial rights befitting a King.
(August) Sir Goldsworthy Gurney was Knighted by Queen Victoria for improving the lighting and ventilation of the House of Commons.
At Botallack Mine the chain which pulled the mine gig suddenly broke, causing 8 men and a boy to plummet their deaths down the shaft.
(17th February) Mines Commission introduced.
(22nd April) John Harris, the poet (1820-1884) of Bolenowe, Camborne, wins the Shakespeare tercentenary first prize.
(April) Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian patriot, arrives in Fowey to see his friend, Colonel John Peard, and is greeted by large crowds.
A dispute arose over silver and gold coins which were found in the Luxulyan parish churchyard. The Duchy of Cornwall had asserted its right to them as treasure trove, but the Solicitor to the Treasury questioned this, asking for copy documents under which "the claim of the Duchy was founded." The Duchy sent copies of the Charters of its creation and correspondence stating that, as the Coroner is the officer responsible for treasure trove, and the Duke has the right of appointing the Coroner within Cornwall, the treasure trove belonged to the Duchy.
(2nd January) The Lizard lifeboat was washed among rocks and smashed while on exercise in a hurricane. Three of the ten crew drowned – Coxswain Peter Mitchell, Richard Harris and Nicholas Stevens. Institution gave £130 to local fund.
Collapse of copper prices begins the de-industrialisation of Cornwall and increases Cornish emigration.
The new South Pier in Newlyn was opened so that boats could now moor up here instead of in the bay.
Cornwall's farms were hit with "Rinderpest" which decimated Cornish cattle herds and there were outbreaks of cholera.
The Royal Naval Training ship HMS 'Ganges' arrives in Cornwall and is moored off Mylor near Penryn.
(28th December) A lifeboat station is established at Looe following the loss of several lives when local boatmen went to the assistance of a fishing vessel. Sadly their boat capsized in the breakers on returning ashore.
(6th February) Five of the crew of thirteen of Padstow lifeboatmen were drowned when going to the rescue of the schooner "Georgiana".
The High Sheriff appeals for aid to prevent 'severe distress and great destitution' in Cornwall. Between 1860 and 1870 700 people die of poverty-related diseases in Truro alone.
The two fiercely competing companies Harvey Company and the Cornish Copper Company merged to gain control of Hayle's harbour.
The china clay industry now employs about 4000 men producing an annual output of 160,000 tons
The greatest number of pilchards ever taken in one seine was 5,600 hogsheads at St. Ives in this year.
(25th May) Billy Bray the revivalist preacher dies aged 74.
Truro gained a volunteer fire brigade
The Wolf Rock Lighthouse is completed at a cost of £62,726.
Cornwall is the premier tin mining field in the world, boasting over 2000 mines.
A new international telegraph cable was laid from Porthcurno to Carcavellos in Portugal.
(12th January) Caroline Fox dies aged 52. As a Quaker, she wanted to end slavery and improve conditions for people in prison. She helped to establish the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society in Falmouth.
Royal Cornwall Yacht Club (RCYC) was formed in Falmouth.
The first recorded End to End walk, from John O'Groats to Land's End, was undertaken by two brothers, Robert and John Naylor.
The population of Cornwall is now 362,343 persons.
A telegraph cable was laid from Porthcurno to Vigo in Spain.
Longships lighthouse was re-built at a cost of £43,870.
(3rd October) Elizabeth Bennett walked free from Camborne magistrates court to a tumultuous public welcome. She had been cleared of a charge of stealing £15 by a tyrannical police Superintendent Stephens. He was later dismissed.
(16th April) The SS 'Zelda', on her maiden voyage, became stranded on rocks off The Isles of Scilly in fog. Her crew and passengers were saved, and some cargo was salvaged by divers. When the wreck was inspected in 1966, it was found that not only had the SS 'Brinkburn' sank on top of the Zelda in 1898, but that evidence of an unknown wooden warship was found beneath it.
(1st June) The Par to Newquay railway was taken over by Cornwall Minerals Railway and extended to Fowey via the newly constructed Pinnock Tunnel (The longest in Cornwall at 1173 yards) to transport china clay to the dock.
(28th February) Sir Goldsworthy Gurney dies aged 82.
The Duke of Cornwall sails down the River Nile accompanied by six blue and gold steamers towing supply barges. One carried 3,000 bottles of champagne, 4,000 bottles of claret, 10,000 pints of beer and four French chefs.
(15th August) Reverend Robert Stephen Hawker dies aged 72.
Harvey's of Hayle acquired its rival company, the Cornish Copper Company.
(12th May) Another explosion occurs at Herodsfoot gunpowder works, caused merely by a spark from a workman’s mallet hitting a grain of grit, destroying the mill again, and killing three men.
(17th August) Act creates the Bishopric of Truro, and St. Mary's becomes the cathedral church.
A new bridge is built across the River Fowey at Draynes to replace an earlier ford.
The Cornish and Devon Post newspaper commences publication at Launceston.
Kit Hill Tunnel Limited began work on both the south and north sides of the hill to create a tunnel which would be two miles long.
(17th August) City status granted to Truro which then becomes the capital of Cornwall.
(September) The first use of a high-pressure hose in the extraction of Cornish china clay is introduced by the West Of England Company, but is sabotaged by the workers fearing the future of their jobs.
(December) A hurricane strikes across Bodmin Moor.
(18th July) The Cornishman newspaper commences publication in Penzance.
(15th August) Selina Wadge was hanged at Bodmin Jail for the murder of her child.
(3rd September) Sir Frederick Martin Williams, 2nd Baronet of Tregullow dies aged 48.
Mount Hawke church, designed by the architect Charles Hancock, is built.
(27th November) Neville Northey Burnard who achieved national fame by sculpting the head of the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, dies aged 60.
A cholera outbreak in Portreath caused the death of almost half the population of the village.
The Redruth Independent newspaper commences publication and continues until 1895.
(15th August) Sir Richard Rawlinson Vyvyan, 8th Baronet of Trelowarren dies aged 79. He was Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of the Cornwall Yeomanry Cavalry on 5th September 1820. He held the office of High Sheriff of Cornwall in 1840.
Penlee Quarry is started on the coast near Newlyn.
(25th May) HRH Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, lays foundation stone of Truro Cathedral (St. Mary's church is demolished except for the South Aisle). Work starts on the cathedral under John Loughborough Pearson. The Royal party was accommodated at Tregothnan for their stay in Cornwall.
Tresmere church is wholly re-built except for the tower, and re-consecrated in 1881.
A telegraph cable was laid from Porthcurno to Brest in France.
Large scale quarrying for granite began at Kit Hill.
Greenwich Mean Time was legally adopted throughout the island of Great Britain. Until then clocks in Cornwall were set about twenty minutes later than London.
(4th April) Most of Lanhydrock House is destroyed by fire.
Holman Brothers of Camborne began producing the Cornish Rock Drill which went on to achieve great commercial success.
The population of Cornwall is now 330,686 persons.
(24th April) The London barge 'St. Vincent' sank on Toll Island, near Pelistry, St. Mary's after striking the Spanish Ledges. The crew escaped, but there was much embarrassment as she was carrying a St. Agnes pilot.
Douglass's tower built on Eddystone rock.
Bishop Benson leaves Truro to become Archbishop of Canterbury.
At Temple on Bodmin Moor, the site of a 12th century Knights Templar commandery, St. Catherine's church is built to a design by Sylvanus Trevail in the location of an earlier one which had become ruinous by the 18th century.
Artists' colony established at Newlyn.
(25th June) An earthquake was felt in the Launceston area of Cornwall, it measured 4.2 on the Richter scale.
During quarrying for building materials at Carne Farm near Morvah a hoard of gold ornaments was found dating from the late Bronze Age.
Herodsfoot's mine finally closed and went into liquidation, owing various monies.
(25th June) The Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 reduced the number of Cornish MP's to six.
(23rd January) An earthquake which shook buildings is felt across Cornwall.
Cornwall's first free public library service was founded by the creation of the Truro Free Public Library at the Public Rooms, Truro.
(9th May) Helston Railway opened for traffic.
(21st August) The first Launceston agricultural show is held.
Visit of HRH the Prince of Wales, to Falmouth who laid the foundation stone of All Saints' Church.
(October) Sir James Douglass re-built Bishop Rock Lighthouse making it forty feet taller and much stronger.
The Cambornian newspaper commences publication in Camborne, changes its title to The Western Star in 1890 and continues until 1896.
Camborne School of Mines was established.
(31st May) A new Town Hall is opened in Wadebridge.
Artists' colony established at St. Ives.
The King Harry Steam Ferry Company Limited is formed to better manage the ferry crossing across the River Fal from Trelissick to The Roseland Peninsula. The ferry crossing saves a detour by road of about 27 miles.
(1st April) Cornwall County Council is created by the Local Government Act of 1888. Committees include County Rate Basis, Finance, Highways and Bridges, Lunatic Asylum, Contagious Diseases of Animals, General Purposes and Parliamentary, Standing Joint, and Sea Fisheries.
The Cornish Post and Mining News newspaper commences publication in Camborne, and continues until 1944 when it is incorporated into The Cornishman. The St. Austell Star newspaper commences publication and continues until 1915. The Western Echo newspaper commences publication in St. Ives and continues until 1957 when it is incorporated in the St. Ives Times.
The Cornish Football Association is founded.
(15th October) The Cunard liner 'Malta' run ashore in dense fog near Botallack. The vessel was a complete loss, but no lives were lost.
(June) Commencement of the 'Cornishman' train service from Paddington to Penzance.
(9th March) A blizzard swept through Cornwall bringing snowdrifts up to twenty feet deep. But it is the hurricane force wind that causes most damage: over 200 lives are lost, the majority at sea where 63 ships founder, one of them being the British Barque 'Bay of Panama' which was wrecked on the east coast of the Lizard Peninsula. Upwards of 6,000 sheep and lambs die, and half a million trees are brought down.
The population of Cornwall is now 322,571 persons.
(21st February) The 'Fratelli' hit the Runnel Stone and sank in deep water. Five of her crew were sighted from Lamorna in a punt which capsized off Carn Du throwing her occupants into the water where they all drowned. One body was washed up at Chyandour, Penzance, while the punt, plus another, was later brought into Newlyn.
(20th May) All the broad gauge railway lines on The Great Western Railway were re-laid to the standard gauge.
(10th January) Wheal Owles (St. Just) mine disaster, twenty lives lost in flooding.
(4th March) The Lizard and Cadgwith lifeboats were called to the aid of the SS 'Gustav Bitter' which had run aground on rocks. The Lizard lifeboat recovered three of the four men from the ship, whilst the Cadgwith lifeboat recovered eight further crew members including the ships Master from the ship’s boat.
The first free public library building in Cornwall is provided when Penzance's Public Library is opened in Morrab Road. It is established with a bequest of £1,947 from Octavius Allen Ferris of Highgate, London, who gives similar amounts to Truro, Falmouth, Camborne and Redruth. Thomas Bedford Bolitho and John Passmore Edwards each present 1,000 volumes. Passmore Edwards finances the building of these libraries too, as well as those at St. Ives, Bodmin, Liskeard and Launceston.
Passmore Edwards Cottage Hospital is built in Falmouth.
(24th November) The SS 'Serica' nearly foundered and took shelter in St. Mary's Roads on the 19th. As she left she struck an uncharted rock (later named Serica Rock) and sank.
(20th December) The barque 'Iota' was driven against the cliffs at Lye Rock, Trebarwith, all but one were saved.
Newlyn Art Gallery opened.
An new longer North Pier was completed in Newlyn, enabling every boat to tie up alongside the quay for safety.
(1st January) The largest ship wrecked on the Doom Bar is believed to be the 'Antoinette', a barque of 1,118 tonnes. She set sail from Newport in South Wales with a cargo of coal for Brazil, but foundered near Lundy Island, losing parts of her mast. She was towed by a steam tug towards Padstow but struck the Doom Bar. Her crew of fourteen and several men who had attempted to salvage her were rescued by lifeboats, following which she rapidly sank.
(7th April) The Russian barque 'Pallas' was wrecked on Great Perhaver Beach off Gorran Haven after grounding on The Gwineas in an easterly gale. The vessel's cargo was timber and all the crew were rescued.
(March) The sailing ship 'Bay of Panama' was wrecked under Nare Head, near St. Keverne, during a great blizzard. The ship carried jute from Calcutta; eighteen of those on board died but nineteen were saved.
Stannaries Court (Abolition) Act enforced.
The Charles Buller Memorial Library is built in Liskeard.
A large granite cross is erected on Dodman Point to help protect shipping from this headland.
(27th October) Sir Colman Rashleigh, 2nd Baronet of Menabilly dies aged 77. He was High Sheriff of Cornwall in 1852 and Deputy-Warden of the Stannaries. He was a MP for East Cornwall from 1874 to 1880.
A serious outbreak of typhoid in the town of Wadebridge led to better water supplies.
Passmore Edwards Cottage Hospital is built in Liskeard.
Blue Hiils Tin mine finally closes.
The Victoria Gardens in Truro are laid out and opened for public use in commemoration of the 60th year of the reign of Queen Victoria.
A telegraph cable was laid from Porthcurno to Gibraltar.
(14th October) The SS 'Mohegan' was wrecked after striking the Manacle rocks off The Lizard. 106 lives were lost. Most of the recovered bodies of the drowned were buried in a mass grave in St. Keverne churchyard, which was given a memorial stained glass window by the Atlantic Transport Line. A magnificent staircase salvaged from the wreck stands in Coverack youth hostel.
(19th December) Principal keeper John Ball was swept to his death from Bishop Rock Lighthouse. His body was never found.
(28th August) HMS 'Ganges' left Falmouth.
The Western Echo was founded by William J. Jacobs in St. Ives.
The first motor cars arrive in Cornwall.
(26th September) Pendeen Lighthouse is commissioned.
(22nd January) Edward VII becomes King on the death of his mother, Queen Victoria.
(15th May) A new railway line opened with a climbing curving link line from Coombe Junction, a little south of Moorswater, to the now Great Western Railway station at Liskeard. The new connecting line had to climb a considerable vertical interval to reach the Cornish Main Line which passed above Moorswater on a 147 feet high viaduct.
The Cornish Guardian newspaper commences publication in Bodmin.
A telegraph cable was laid from Porthcurno to Maderia.
A new barracks is built at Pendennis Castle.
(9th November) George Frederick Ernest Albert, second son of Albert Edward becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
(18th November) The Penzance schooner 'Mary James' bound for Swansea from Newlyn with copper ore lost her mast and sails off the Longships and the wreckage was washed up the next day. The crew of six had been taken off by the Sennen Lifeboat.
The population of Cornwall is now 322,957 persons.
(7th November) The Camborne and Redruth Tramway opens, Cornwall's only electric street tramway, and unique in Britain in providing for the transport of minerals too. The last passenger service ran in 1927.
(27th November) The Penlee Quarry Light Railway opens near Newlyn.
(December) Truro holds its first annual primestock show.
(4th February) The 'Berwick' of Newcastle was wrecked on the Runnelstone; the crew took to two boats one of which reached land and the other with five crew taken to Penzance in the Sennen Cove lifeboat.
New Iceworks are built at Newlyn harbour.
(20th April) Sir Charles Brune Graves Sawle, 2nd Baronet of Penrice and MP for Bodmin, dies aged 87. He had served as a Justice of the Peace, Special Deputy Warden of the Stannaries and Honorary Lieutenant Colonel of the Royal Cornwall and Devon Miner's Militia.
(16th May) Sir William Robert Williams, 3rd Baronet of Tregullow dies aged 43.
(August) The Great Western Railway Company ran the first scheduled bus service in Cornwall. It ran from Helston to the Lizard. By the 1920's it had become one of the largest operators in the south west covering forty four routes.
(26th December) Lancelot Stephen Bosanquet was born at St. Stephen's-by-Saltash, he later became a British mathematician who worked in analysis, especially Fourier series.
Publication of Jenner's 'Handbook of the Cornish language', prompts the revival of Cornish.
Cornwall accepted into Celtic Congress.
(1st September) The SS 'Lady of the Isles' on an excursion to the Isles of Scilly hit a sunken ledge off Carn Du and later beached at Lamorna Cove. The passengers had to walk the four miles back to Penzance.
Harvey's Foundry at Hayle finally closed.
The main tower and spire of the new Truro Cathedral are completed.
A young woman, by the name Jessie Rickard, was murdered at Castle an Dinas by a jealous lover, who then took his own life
The Newquay Express newspaper commences publication, and continues until 1945, when it becomes the Newquay Guardian and Cornwall County Chronicle. In 1955 it is incorporated as a local edition of the Cornish Guardian.
Geevor Mine is the name given to the former North Levant Mine which has worked from about 1810. It survives as a working mine until August 1986. It re-opens as a mining heritage centre in August 1993.
(4th August) The French barque 'Noisiel' was beached on Praa Sands during a gale.
(20th September) Sir William Frederick Williams, 4th Baronet of Tregullow dies aged 19.
A telegraph cable was laid from Porthcurno to Fayal in the Azores via the island of St. Helena.
Dense fogs infested the coast of West Cornwall continuously from May to August.
(15th June) Six railway carriages accidentally left without their brakes on ran away down the incline from Liskeard Station to Moorswater where they demolished the engine shed and caused much other damage, but luckily no-one was hurt.
(31st July) The French ship 'Socoa' struck rocks near Cadgwith.
The 'Morgawr', a giant sea serpent said to measure 12-14 feet long, was reportedly sighted swimming in the waters beyond Land's End.
(28th August) Sir John Betjeman the famous author is born.
(17th March) The 12,000 tonne liner SS 'Suevic' hit the Maenheere Reef near Lizard Point. In a strong gale and dense fog RNLI lifeboat volunteers rescued 456 passengers, including 70 babies. Crews from the Lizard, Cadgwith, Coverack and Porthleven rowed out repeatedly for sixteen hours to rescue all of the people on board.
(13th May) Author Daphne du Maurier is born.
(23rd August) Par stack is demolished, it was the tallest stack in Cornwall at 235 feet.
Thomas Merritt, composer of famous carols was born at Broad Lane, Illogan on October 26th 1863, the son of a copper miner. He attended Pool School until his father died when Thomas was age eleven. For a time Thomas then worked at Carn Brea mine and later Tolvaddon Tin Streams. Mr Humphrey Broad taught him music for about six months at Redruth when he was about eighteen, but apart from that he appears to have had no formal training. He was organist at Chili Road Chapel and Illogan Highway Chapel. In addition to his carols, Merritt also composed (among others) The Christian Solider, an Oratorio and Shepherd of Israel, a Sacred Cantata. Merritt died on April 17th 1908, aged 46.
(2nd March) Calstock railway station opened.
(7th March) A serious fire at Scorrier House destroyed large parts of the property.
(19th May) A viaduct at Forder, near Saltash was demolished after the main line was diverted to a more inland alignment.
(4th October) The 'Alice Marie' was wrecked in Mounts Bay after hitting the Runnel Stone.
A breakwater is built at Sennen Cove.
(1st January) The Bude County Secondary School first opened.
(20th July) William Hampton was hung for the murder of Emily Tredrea. This was the last hanging is performed in Bodmin Jail.
(14th August) The 300 foot 'Plympton' struck the Lethegus' Ledge off St. Agnes and sank in thick fog.
A new cable station is built to house the large amount of new telegraph cables which come ashore at Porthcurno.
(18th April) The SS 'Minnehaha', first-class liner hit Scilly Rock off Bryher in dense fog. Later re-floated with no loss of life. She was the first vessel to send an SOS call to the Marconi radio station on the Lizard Peninsula.
(6th May) George V becomes King and Emperor of India on the death of his father, Edward VII, and his son Edward becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, is Knighted.
(July) Claude Grahame-White brought his aeroplane to Cornwall by train to put on a display – flying over Mount's Bay and Penzance. This was the first time the majority of west Cornwall people had seen an aircraft.
(5th September) The 1500 ton 'William Cory' was en route from Finland to Newport in south Wales with a cargo of pit props when she struck the rocks near Pendeen and was wrecked while the skipper was navigating without charts.
St. Piran's oratory was excavated and a number of skeletons, including one of a large headless man, were found before the remains were encased in a large concrete structure.
The granite quarries at Lamorna Cove ceased production.
HRH Edward, Prince of Wales, and his brother Prince Albert (later Kings Edward VIII and George VI respectively) recuperated at the Headland Hotel in Newquay after catching measles and mumps while studying at Royal Naval College, Dartmouth.
(31st July) A whole shoal of whales were beached at Longrock, Penzance.
(13th December) The barque 'Saluto' was driven ashore close to St. Michael's Mount during a fierce gale. Her crew of 13 were all saved.
The population of Cornwall is now 328,098 persons.
(5th March) A three-masted schooner was forced to shelter in Newquay Bay, in a strong north wind, but drifted ashore and wrecked when her anchor fouled. Two of the crew were saved by breeches buoy, the others clambered up the 100 foot cliff on the cliff ladder.
75% of Cornish china clay production is for shipment overseas.
(15th April) Among the 2,200 people on board the ill-fated RMS 'Titanic', there was a group of Cornish miners hoping to build a new life in America.
(12th November) R. B. Kitson from Lanreath, near Looe became the first Cornishman to pass his flying test and qualify as a pilot.
(8th December) The Greek steamer 'Antonios' was lost on Old Bess, Isles of Scilly with the loss of her crew. The wreck went unnoticed for three days until wreckage and thousands of oranges were washed up on St. Agnes.
A major strike occurs in support of a minimum wage of £1 5s 0d (equal to approx £82.00 in 2005) for the china clay industry in the St. Austell area. 200 policemen met 2,000 strikers at Bugle and charged the strikers and beat them back with truncheons.
(1st October) Sir Frederick William Williams, 5th Baronet of Tregullow dies aged 25.
(16th January) HMS 'A7', an early Royal Navy submarine, sank in Whitsand Bay with the loss of all her crew whilst carrying out dummy torpedo attacks.
(1st February) The German steel barque 'Hera' was wrecked on Gull rock off Nare Head on the Roseland Peninsula and was sunk with a loss of nineteen lives. The sailors are all buried at Veryan churchyard.
(28th July) Start of World War One.
(4th August) Young men across Cornwall flocked to join the services at the start of World War One.
159 China clay works are in operation in Cornwall.
(11th November) A large fire gutted several buildings and the clock tower in the centre of Truro.
Newlyn was selected as the Ordnance Survey datum point, the mean sea level from which all heights throughout Britain are calculated. A tidal observatory was built on the pier.
(25th September) The Redruth and Chasewater Railway closes.
Many ships were torpedoed and sunk by German submarines around the Cornish coast.
(12th November) Terrific gales caused much damage to property and uprooted large trees in and around Penzance.
The 'Enrico Parodi', a 339 foot long, 3,800-ton steel vessel, struck Gurnard's Head near Zennor during thick fog. While being towed, it sank off The Carracks and remains there, thirty yards below the surface as a diving attraction.
(3rd November) The SS 'Ponus' was travelling from Trinidad to Britain. While off of the coast of Cornwall, she encountered a gale. Her anchor could not hold her in place and she was driven ashore on Gyllyngvase beach, Falmouth. She then caught ﬁre. All the crew were safely landed, with the aid of the Falmouth lifeboat.
(1st December) Two French sailing ships were torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine 'UB-18' north of Trevose Head.
(31st December) The Liskeard and Caradon Railway closes all lines north of Moorswater.
(March to June) Shortage of Potatoes around Penzance, the majority of households having none for weeks.
(25th September) William Henry Edgcumbe, 4th Earl of Mount Edgcumbe dies aged 83. He was an Aide-de-Camp to Queen Victoria from 1887 to 1897 and a Member of the Council to the Prince of Wales from 1901 to 1917 as well as Keeper of the Seal of the Duchy of Cornwall from 1907 to 1917. Between 1877 and 1917 he served as Lord-Lieutenant of Cornwall.
(3rd October) Sir Burton Robert Williams, 6th Baronet of Tregullow dies aged 28. He died at the Battle of Passchendaele and was killed in action.
(6th December) The USS 'Jacob Jones', an American destroyer, was hit in the stern by a torpedo while on convoy duty. She exploded killing her crew and sank within eight minutes 25 miles south-east of the Bishop Rock.
Many more ships were torpedoed and sunk by German submarines around the Cornish coast.
(2nd March) The St. Austell to Pentewan Railway closed.
(23rd July) The SS 'Annie Sofie' was torpedoed and sunk off Trevose Head by the German submarine U-55 with the loss of one life.
(6th August) Lieutenant Thomas Algernon Smith-Dorrien-Smith dies aged 72 and his son Arthur Algernon Dorrien-Smith takes over as Governor of The Isles of Scilly.
(17th October) A torpedoed tramp steamer 'Anthony Radcliffe' beaches near Land's End.
(11th November) Celebrations across Cornwall as World War One ends.
Hundreds of people died across Cornwall when an epidemic of Spanish flu swept through the county.
(23rd February) Tehidy House, near Illogan, is destroyed by fire.
(15th March) Penzance Naval Base Closes.
(11th June) HRH The Prince of Wales visits Truro.
The amalgamation takes place of three large china clay companies - Martin Brothers, the west of England and Great Beam Company, and the North Cornwall China Clay Company, to become English China Clays Ltd or ECC based near St. Austell. It controls 50% of the production.
(26th March) The Isles of Scilly Steamship Company Ltd was formed by the inhabitants of the Islands to provide regular, cost effective and enjoyable travel between the mainland and the Isles of Scilly.
First Old Cornwall Society founded by Robert Morton Nance at St. Ives
(27th August) HMS 'Hood', the largest battleship in the world, visited Mount' s Bay.
(29th November) The 'Capitaine Remy' ran aground just off Polkerris.
Robert Barclay Fox (1873-1934), becomes High Sheriff of Cornwall.
(2nd December) A big German steamer the 'Hathor', of 7,060 tons gross, sank right across the wreck of the 'Plympton', at the base of Lethegus Rocks, Isles of Scilly.
A new clock tower is built in St. Teath as a war memorial.
(20th January) The HMS 'K5' a British submarine, sunk about 120 miles south-west of the Isles of Scilly with the loss of 57 lives.
The butter-market in the centre of Launceston is demolished to make way for a new war memorial.
(20th December) Sir Frederick Law Williams, 7th Baronet of Tregullow dies aged 59. He was a Lieutenant 1st Battalion Dorsetshire Regiment.
The population of Cornwall is now 320,705 persons.
The Forestry Commission purchase Cardinham Woods.
(3rd March) The French trawler 'Marguerite' went aground in Talland Bay near Looe, having lost her bearings in a south-westerly gale.
The Cornish Wrestling Association was formed to standardise the rules of the sport and to promote Cornish wrestling throughout Cornwall and the world.
Thomas Hardy writes "The Queen of Cornwall", a one-act play based on the Tristan and Iseult story.
(8th October) The 6,000-ton cargo ship SS 'City of Westminster' was wrecked on the Runnel Stone just south of Land's End, slicing off the top of the stone. Fortunately the 72 crew were rescued by local lifeboats.
The Federation of Old Cornwall Societies (FOCS) was formed on the initiative of Robert Morton Nance.
(March) The first Western Commercial Horticultural Show was held at Penzance. The show is now known as The West Cornwall Spring Show.
(January) The County Library Service begins. Cornwall County Council adopts the Public Libraries Acts, and by 1926 48 villages have boxes of up to 30 volumes sent out by bus and rail. In 1928 the first 'exhibition library van' is purchased, to carry about 2,000 books, visiting each village regularly to permit the public to select books for their village centre.
(17th November) RMV 'Scillonian' was built for the Isles of Scilly Steamship Company by the Ailsa Shipbuilding Company Ltd of Troon, Scotland. She was designed to carry 400 passengers and cargo between Penzance and the Isles of Scilly. She was launched and named 'Scillonian' by Mrs. A. A. Dorrien-Smith of Tresco Abbey.
(11th March) HMS 'Cornwall' was launched at Devonport Dockyard, watched from across the river at Saltash by the crowds.
(3rd May) General Strike proclaimed. Train and other Services curtailed.
St. Austell gets a new by-pass built around the southern edge of the town.
(1st January) The first BBC radio broadcasts become receivable in Cornwall.
The St. Ives Society of Artists was founded.
(8th June) HRH The Prince of Wales visits Truro.
Carclew House Gardens first opened to the public.
Bodmin Jail, the last County Jail in Cornwall, eventually closed.
Cornwall College at Camborne is the first college of further education in the county.
Mousehole Bird Hospital founded by the Misses Dorothy and Phyllis Yglesias.
(21st September) First Cornish Gorsedd at Boscawen-un, (instituted by Henry Jenner) symbolising the resurgent interest in Cornwall's cultural and linguistic heritage conducted by Pedrog, Archdruid of Britain.
(16th June) HRH Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother visits Truro.
The Council for the Preservation of Rural England publishes Cornwall: a survey of its coast, moors and valleys, with suggestions for the preservation of amenities. Its preface is contributed by Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch.
(18th July) Visit of HMS 'Renown' and HMS 'Tiger' to Penzance.
After a steady decline in profits Levant Mine finally closes.
A large fire destroys the workhouse in St. Austell.
The Roman Villa at Magor Farm, Camborne, is discovered.
Daphne du Maurier publishes her first book 'The Loving Spirit'.
Sir John Betjeman publishes his first book of poems 'Mount Zion'.
The population of Cornwall is now 317,968 persons.
Miss Rowena Cade and her gardener begin to carve out the amphitheatre on the cliffs at Porthcurno which becomes the remarkable Minack Theatre. The first performance of "The Tempest" was held in the summer.
(8th August) Protestant agitators broke into St. Hilary church near Penzance and removed or destroyed many of the fittings and furnishings that had been installed by the much-loved Father Bernard Walke.
Newquay Airport opens as an airfield.
(August) A major fire occurred on Samson, in The Isles of Scilly which was put out by the staff of Major Dorrien-Smith, by digging ditches to stop the spread.
An Air Service between London and Penzance was started by Provincial Airways.
A new North Quay was added to Padstow Harbour.
Levant beam engine has been preserved on its working site by private individuals.
(2nd December) The Regal Cinema opens in Redruth.
(25th December) The French schooner 'Loustic' was driven ashore during a gale on Gyllyngvase Beach at Falmouth.
(1st January) The Hayle Railway branch-line finally closes.
(February) The Plaza Cinema opens in Lemon Street, Truro.
(11th December) George VI accedes to the throne upon the abdication of his brother, Edward VIII.
Godolphin House was acquired by the Schofields.
(31st January) The SS 'Alba' ran aground and sank on the rocks off St. Ives.
The German battleship 'Schleswig Holstein' pays a courtesy visit to Falmouth.
(August) St. Mary's Airport is opened on The Isles of Scilly.
(3rd September) Start of World War Two.
(September) 300 infantrymen are sent to protect the telegraph cable station at Porthcurno.
(4th January) The SS 'Ardangorm', a 5,000-ton vessel, struck the Gwineas off Gorran Haven in an ESE gale at night when en route from Cardiff to Fowey. The 36 crew were saved by the lifeboat from Fowey.
(8th January) Food rationing is introduced.
(30th January) The Greek ship 'Keramiai', part of Convoy OA 80G, was torpedoed and sunk by German submarine 'U-55' off Land's End.
(June) 16,971 British Servicemen from the final evacuations of France and the Channel Islands landed in Falmouth.
(7th June) Penhale camp near Holywell Bay was bombed by a single German bomber, probably looking for the nearby St. Eval airfield; twenty two British soldiers were killed in the raid, most were subsequently buried in nearby Perranporth.
(29th June) Bombs fall on Torpoint during a German air raid.
Charlestown dock taken over for fitting out mine sweepers.
(7th July) Four bombs fell on Penhale Army Camp at Holywell Bay. Some soldiers were killed and damage done to a number of Army huts.
(7th July) The Dutch tanker 'Lucretia' was torpedoed and sank by the German submarine 'U-34' west of The Isles of Scilly, two of the crew were lost but thirty were saved.
(10th July) The tanker 'British Chancellor' was bombed by Luftwaffe aircraft and sank in Falmouth harbour.
(21st August) RAF St. Eval, north of Newquay was the target for a quite concentrated attack by German Messerschmitts which caused seventeen casualties and destroyed or damaged a number of aircraft on the ground.
(1st September) British mine-sweeping trawler HMT 'Royalo' hit a mine and sank off Penzance, all seven crew were killed.
(14th October) A tremendous fire in Fore Street, St. Austell destroys many shops.
(October) The coaster 'Jersey Queen', after suffering an aerial attack sank in Falmouth Bay with the loss of two crew.
(9th November) A German bomber crashed landed on the Boconnoc Estate during the night, there were no survivors.
(26th November) The French patrol boat 'Medoc' was torpedoed and sank off Rame Head with the loss of 41 crew.
(November) Porthoustock survived a German bombing raid with no casualties.
(January) Captain Dick Yelland retires after sixty years work at the same china clay works.
(16th March) The steamer 'Elna E' struck a mine and sunk ten miles north of Crackington Haven.
(March) An RAF airfield is opened north of Portreath to serve as a RAF Fighter Command station.
(20th March) Redruth railway station and viaduct were hit by eleven bombs. Two houses were demolished and considerable damage resulted to many houses and business premises. Six people were killed and five seriously injured.
(21st March) Mount Edgcumbe house suffered a direct hit by a German bomb and was gutted by fire.
(11th April) Saltash was attacked by many German bombers, possibly targeting the railway bridge. Seventeen People lost their lives that night.
(13th April) Par Docks was bombed around midnight; one house was demolished and telephone and electricity cables, gas mains and sewers were damaged.
(14th April) The 'Arbel' of Antwerp was bombed and sunk off Cape Cornwall. Of her twenty crew seventeen survived.
(22nd April) Naval storage tanks at Torpoint were bombed with a loss of seventeen lives.
(28th April) An RAF airfield is opened south-west of Perranporth. The airfield was used by twenty one different squadrons flying Spitfires. Another bombing raid was targeted at Saltash and Torpoint. HMS Raleigh took a direct hit causing much damage and killing 43 sailors.
(7th May) A bombing raid demolished two houses at Cawsand.
(13th May) Penryn was hit by a German air raid which destroyed twenty three houses a shop, the church institute and left three people dead.
(8th June) Ten high explosive bombs were dropped on Penzance destroying six houses and killing nine persons including a Police Sergeant.
(21st June) Penzance railway station is bombed killing one person.
(14th November) A bomb dropped on Redruth failed to explode causing a four day movement restriction in the area.
(1st October) RAF Predannack is opened on the Lizard Peninsula to help defend the south-west approaches. The airfield was closed in March 1946.
(15th November) Sir Courtenay Bourchier Vyvyan, 10th Baronet of Trelowarren dies aged 83. He fought in the First Boer War in 1879 and he fought in the Matabele War in 1896, where he was mentioned in dispatches. He fought in the Boer War between 1899 and 1902 and he gained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and Brevet Colonel in the Royal East Kent Regiment.
(25th November) Five bombs aimed at Falmouth Docks missed their target and fell on the town. Three houses were demolished and eighty damaged. Five persons were killed and three seriously injured.
A Luftwaffe plane, returning from a raid on Cardiff, jettisoned its bombs on the hotel at Land's End destroying the oldest sections of the building. One man was killed and many other local people and military personnel were injured.
(12th December) Fourteen bombs were dropped on Falmouth. Three houses were demolished, the Hydro Hotel on the seafront was damaged, Leaving one person killed and nine injured.
A medium wave radio transmitting mast is erected at Four Lanes near Redruth.
(20th March) The steamer 'Risoy' carrying 450 tons of scrap iron from Southampton to Swansea sunk in an air raid off Trevose Head with the loss of one crew.
(28th March) Falmouth was used as the launching point for the famous British Commando raid on St. Nazaire in France. Of the 611 who set off on the raid, 169 were killed in action.
(6th August) Two 500 pound bombs were dropped over Truro, one virtually demolished the south wing of the hospital. A ward sister, a nurse and three visiting relatives were killed. Two more bombs were dropped on St. Breward completely demolishing the Sunday school and damaging thirty houses. The same planes went on to Truro and bombed the hospital killing nine people.
(7th August) Bodmin was hit by two 500 pound bombs dropped by German aircraft leaving the gas works on fire and eight people killed.
(17th August) An audacious daylight raid on Coverack in which three bombs were dropped, resulted in the deaths of four persons, with twenty one being injured; five houses demolished and twenty-five damaged, adding up to a disaster for the small community.
(30th August) The gas works at St. Ives were bombed and destroyed by German planes.
(26th September) German bombers attacked Penzance destroying several houses and shops.
(22nd October) Four bombs fell on Menheniot Station and Quarry during the morning, causing one death, nine other casualties and damage to machinery in the stone quarry, to the railway line and ten dwelling houses.
(8th November) Captain Michael Lempriere Bolitho was killed on HMS 'Walney', a Royal Navy tug; her task was to crash through the boom at the entrance to Oran Harbour in Operation Torch.
(February) RAF St. Mawgan opened near Newquay, it became one of the busiest airfields in Britain. Today it is the site of Cornwall's airport.
(22nd March) A fighter plane from St. Eval airfield near Newquay bombed and sank the German submarine 'U-665' in the Bay of Biscay.
(2nd June) After an air battle against eight German planes in the Bay of Biscay, a British Sunderland plane had been heavily damaged. The crew made it back 800 miles to the Cornish coast, where pilot Colin Walker managed to land and beach it at Praa Sands.
(7th June) British Commandos were involved in a mock seaborne raid codenamed "Exercise Brandyball", which took place on the 300 foot cliffs at Bosigran, about two miles south-west of Zennor.
(20th Febuary) HMS 'Warwick' was sunk by the German submarine 'U-413' off Trevose Head. Over half of her crew were lost.
(February) HRH The Duchess of Kent spends a week holidaying at Trebetherick, near Polzeath.
(March) Field Marshall Montgomery visits Carlyon Bay, near St. Austell to see members of his old school who had been evacuated there.
(18th April) Piers Alexander Hamilton Edgcumbe, 5th Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, dies aged 79. He was appointed a Captain in the 3rd (Militia) Battalion of The Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry on 23rd March 1891.
(30th May) Falmouth is bombed during a German air raid, destroying a large petrol storage tank and the Pentargon Hotel.
(6th June) Troops left from various ports and beaches all along the south Cornish coast for the WW2 D-day invasion. Hill 112 in Normandy acquired the name "Cornwall Hill" after Cornish soldiers of 5th Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry suffered 320 casualties in the fighting here.
(8th August) The freighter 'Ezra Weston' was sunk by the German submarine 'U-667' off Trevose Head.
(12th January) A merchant ship was torpedoed by a German submarine off Isles of Scilly.
(14th March) The German submarine 'U-102' hit a mine and was sunk off Padstow.
(21st March) The Dutch coaster 'Pacific' on voyage from Maryport to Penryn torpedoed by German submarines.
(20th April) The German submarine 'U-325' hit a mine and was sunk off the Lizard Peninsula.
(8th May) VE day celebrated across the county marking the end of World War Two.
(15th August) VJ day is celebrated with many street parties etc to mark the end of the war in the far east.
Winston Graham published the first of his Poldark novels - Ross Poldark.
(16th March) The fishing vessel 'Finisterre' was driven ashore at St. Ives with a loss of three lives.
(April) Perranporth airfield is de-commissioned.
(23rd April) HMS 'Warspite' ran aground at Prussia Cove near Marazion while being towed to the breakers yard.
(29th October) HRH King George VI and Queen Elizabeth visit Wheal Martyn.
(1st January) The Great Western Railway Company was finally nationalised into British Railways.
(25th June) The fishing vessel 'Energetic' was hit by the American steamer USS 'Chrysanthy star' in thick fog ten miles SSE of the Lizard. Of the six brothers on board, five were killed. One holidaymaker on a fishing trip was also killed.
Helston Folk Museum is opened in the former Market House.
(May) A new Cornish Stadium is opened for Speedway at Par Moor Road, near St. Austell. It was later used for Greyhound Racing and Stock Car Racing. After 1988 it was closed and redeveloped into Par Market.
HRH Princess Elizabeth visits various properties on the Duchy of Cornwall Estate.
(10th June) The MP Harold Macmillan visits Liskeard.
(6th October) The 6,300 ton cargo ship 'Fantree' struck the Seven Stones reef. Her cargo of hardwood was still being salvaged in 1992. Her crew of fifty-eight were rescued by launches Kittern and Goldern Spray from Scilly.
(9th June) The Cable and Wireless Telegraph Engineering College opens at Porthcurno.
(June) HRH King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (later Queen Mother) along with Princess Margaret visit farms on the Duchy of Cornwall Estate, and also to the Royal Cornwall Show and Restormel Castle at Lostwithiel.
Wesley Cottage at Trewint was restored and opened to the public.
Derek and Jeannie Tangye move from London to a cottage at Minack near Lamorna. He later writes a series of books about his life in Cornwall.
Chemical Defence Establishment Nancekuke was established as a production plant for nerve gas on the site of a disused World War II airfield, RAF Portreath.
(6th September) Torrential rain causes terrible floods in Boscastle.
The Cornish Rex cat breed was started from a cat owned by Mrs Ennismore from Bugle, near St. Austell.
Mebyon Kernow (The Sons of Cornwall) is formed, initially as a pressure group working within existing political parties, canvassing for Cornwall to have greater control of its own destiny.
Charles Causley's first volume of poetry is published - 'Farewell Aggie Weston'.
The population of Cornwall is now 345,442 persons.
(10th January) The SS 'Flying Enterprise' sank 50 miles off Falmouth after getting into difficulties during a storm further out in the channel and whilst being towed in.
(6th February) HRH Queen Elizabeth II's reign begins on the death of her father, King George VI, and Charles her son becomes the Duke of Cornwall.
Fowey Aquarium is opened to the public.
A telegraph cable was laid from Porthcurno to Harbour Grace in Newfoundland.
(16th September) A Helicopter Crash at Par Moor Stadium, St. Austell kills two people.
(October) The Royal Navy warship HMS 'Wave' ran aground near St. Ives. The ship was later salvaged, repaired and returned to service. A propeller believed to be from HMS 'Wave' was washed ashore in 2008.
(January) Reverend Frederick Densham dies aged 83, alone in his vicarage at Warleggan, which he is now said to haunt.
Mebyon Kernow wins its first council seat.
Australian surfers formed the first Surf Life Saving Club in the country in Bude.
The inhabitants of Isles of Scilly finally become subject to income tax.
(4th July) The last of the wartime rationing is removed.
(26th November) Heavy rainfall combined with high tides and strong winds resulted in flooding right across Cornwall. More than 150 properties are affected, some under six feet of water.
The quarries on Kit Hill ceased all workings.
(25th July) The Panamanian registered steamer SS 'Punta' drove onto the Seven Stones reef and was abandoned by her crew. She filled and sank soon afterwards.
(3rd September) The first traction engine rally ever to be staged in Cornwall is held near Camborne.
ECLP and Company's output of china clay reached the 1 million tonne mark.
(2nd January) The MV 'Citrine', of Glasgow, sank off the Lizard coast. The Lizard lifeboat rescued three of her crew from the sea, and the Coverack lifeboat rescued four others from the sea, one of whom died later.
(14th March) The 'Vert Prairal', a French trawler, was capsized near Porthcurno. A man out looking for driftwood discovered the wreckage and called the coastguard. There were no survivors. The captain and most of the 17 crew were found drowned.
(7th May) HRH Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip visit to Arrallas Farm near Truro.
(7th August) Television came to Cornwall with the opening of the new transmitter at North Hessary Tor on Dartmoor.
A nuclear bomb proof bunker is built on the outskirts of Coverack and named RAF Treliever.
Geevor Tin Mine was visited by HRH Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip.
The St. Ives Times and Echo is started from the amalgamation of The Western Echo and The St. Ives Times.
(17th February) The Cornish Riviera Express was taken over by diesels, reducing the Paddington to Penzance time to 5.5 hours.
(16th May) HRH The Duke of Edinburgh visits Falmouth to open the new Queen Elizabeth Dock.
(3rd June) Serious flooding occurs at Boscastle in which Mr Charlie Berryman, the local Bandmaster, loses his life by drowning, and Miss Rachel Beadon, trapped in a telephone box, has to be rescued by fishermen.
The Atomic Energy Authority took over operations in the tunnel under Kit Hill, and used the tunnel for underground explosions.
The biggest mako shark ever caught in British waters, weighing 214 pounds was caught off Looe.
(5th October) The Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry is merged with the Somerset Light Infantry (Prince Albert's) to form the Somerset and Cornwall Light Infantry.
Mount Edgcumbe House, originally erected in 1547-54, is re-built following its destruction in the Second World War.
(1st July) Sir William Law Williams, 8th Baronet of Tregullow dies aged 53. He gained the rank of Captain in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Counter-urbanisation results in major inward migration to Cornwall.
(12th September) Liskeard County Secondary School is opened at Luxstowe.
(19th September) Montague Charles Eliot, 8th Earl of St. Germans dies aged 90. In 1923, he was appointed Member of the Royal Victorian Order (MVO), and from 1924–1936 he became Extra Groom-in-Waiting.
St. Austell Public Library is built to the design of F K Hicklin, County Architect. It is now a listed building.
(March) Cornish Author, Derek Tangye, published his first book, 'A Gull on the Roof'.
(29th April) Westward Television launched by Peter Cadbury to serve Cornwall from a studio in Plymouth.
An 800 foot television mast is erected on Caradon Hill to supply East Cornwall with an improved TV service and some commercial channels.
(September) Bodmin College opened a large state comprehensive school on the outskirts of the town.
(24th October) Tamar Road Bridge opens for traffic (at 6am) at Saltash.
The population of Cornwall is now 342,301 persons.
(26th April) The Tamar bridge at Saltash was officially opened by the HRH Queen Mother.
(11th July) Goonhilly Earth Satellite Station's first aerial ready for the launch of Telstar. This was the first satellite communication between the UK and the rest of the world.
Sir James Smith Comprehensive School at Camelford, designed by F K Hicklin, is built.
The Roseland Community College is built near Tregony.
Newquay County Branch Library is built to the design of F K Hicklin, County Architect.
A pedestrian precinct is begun in the centre of St. Austell, containing a supermarket and shops, flats, offices, a restaurant and a multi-storey car park. It is designed by Alister MacDonald and Partners.
The bridge at Wadebridge was widened to 39 feet to carry modern traffic.
(23rd October) The small coaster 'Juan Ferrer' ran aground on Boscawen point, one mile west of Lamorna. The vessel capsized with the loss of eleven lives.
(December) The first Christmas Lights Display was held at Mousehole.
An 500 foot television mast is erected at Four Lanes near Redruth to supply West Cornwall with an improved TV service.
(1st September) St. Austell gets a new maternity hospital built at Penrice.
ECLP and Company's output of china clay reached the two million tonne mark.
(14th March) Frederick Browning, husband of Daphne du Maurier dies aged 68.
(July) Wadebridge was flooded after five and a half inches of rain fell in four and a half hours around high tide. The Swan Hotel on The Platt was flooded to a depth of one and a half feet.
Cornwall's new County Hall in Truro, now a listed building, is completed to the design of the County Architect's Department under Alan J Groves.
(8th June) Leo Walmsley, a Yorkshire born author who lived most of his life in Cornwall, dies aged 74 at Fowey.
(13th July) HRH Queen Elizabeth II visited china clay operations in the St. Austell area. She also meets Dame Barbara Hepworth, the former Lord Lieutenant of Cornwall, Sir Edward Bolitho and Lady Bolitho at County Hall, Truro.
(15th July) Francis Gerald Agar-Robartes, 3rd Baron Robartes dies aged 83, he was a British Liberal politician.
The Tall Ships Race started in Falmouth.
(18th March) The 1,000 foot long SS 'Torrey Canyon' goes aground on the Seven Stones reef between Land's End and The Isles of Scilly with a cargo of 119,328 tons of crude oil en route from the Persian Gulf to the BP Refinery in Milford Haven. Salvage preparations are begun, but by 21st March the oil slick was 35 by 20 miles in extent and the ship is abandoned. The entire Cornish coastline, north and south, is polluted by the end of the month. It could not be re-floated and broke up on the rocks.
(1st June) Devon and Cornwall Constabulary is formed, merging the police forces across the two counties.
(June) HRH Queen Mother visits St. Michael's Mount. She arrived by sea, using a small pinnace to travel from the Royal Yacht Britannia anchored off-shore.
A Chapter House is added to Truro Cathedral.
(1st August) HRH Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip accompanied by Prince Charles and Princess Anne visit the Isles of Scilly.
(8th August) HRH Queen Elizabeth visits the Isles of Scilly Museum.
(13th October) Stithians Dam was completed to create a 270 acre reservoir to the west of the village, which supplies water to a large part of the west of Cornwall.
The wreck of HMS 'Association' was discovered just off The Isles of Scilly. More than 2,000 coins and other artefacts were finally recovered from the wreck site and auctioned by Sotheby's in July 1969.
(14th June) Robin Knox-Johnston left Falmouth in his 32-foot boat 'Suhaili', one of the smallest boats to enter the Sunday Times Golden Globe Race.
(12th July) HRH Princess Alexandra officially opened the new hospital at Treliske, near Truro.
Holman Brothers Limited a major employer in Camborne lays off hundreds of its staff.
(14th November) A large fire completely destroys a shop in Liskeard town centre.
(23rd March) A large fire in Market Jew Street, Penzance destroyed several shops in the street.
(26th May) Newquay Zoo is opened by Cornwall County Council.
(15th April) Kilbrandon Report into the British constitution recommends that, when referring to Cornwall - official sources should cite the Duchy not the County. This was suggested in recognition of its constitutional position.
(April 22nd) Robin Knox-Johnston sailed back into Falmouth, and not only became the first person to circumnavigate the globe solo, but he also completed it in the fastest time, he donated the 5,000 prize to fellow competitor Donald Crowhursts family, after Crowhurst committed suicide during the race.
(5th July) Colour TV arrived in Cornwall, being transmitted from Caradon Hill.
A Roman fort was discovered at Nanstallon near Bodmin.
Sir John Betjeman receives a Knighthood.
(25th February) The French channel trawler 'Jean Gougy' was lost on the Western Rocks, Isles of Scilly. The crew of thirteen were never found.
Foundation of the Institute of Cornish Studies in Exeter University.
(June) HRH Prince Charles visits the Royal Cornwall Show.
(31st December) Porthcurno Telegraph Station, the largest cable station in the world finally closes.
(February) A proposal was made to restore Restormel Castle to attract more visitors. But after many lengthy and heated discussions the idea was abandoned.
(15th February) Cornwall along with the rest of the UK changed its monetary system to the decimal system.
(21st August) Lostwithiel Museum was opened to the public.
Institute of Cornish Studies set up at Trevenson House, Pool, near Camborne with Professor Charles Thomas as its first Director.
Padstow Museum is opened to the public.
Seth Cardew started a pottery at Wenford Bridge.
The population of Cornwall is now 381,672 persons.
Mrs Joan Cobbold Sawle as she became, died aged 80 without an heir. Under the terms of her will, Penrice House and much of the proceeds of the estate went to establish a rest home for the elderly.
(27th January) The cruise ship 'Queen Frederica' was driven aground in the Fowey Estuary after breaking free from her moorings in a storm.
Peninsula West, Cornwall's first modern-day free newspaper, commences publication and continues until 1974.
The narrow hump-backed bridge in Par which carries the A3082 is demolished and widened to cope with modern traffic.
Sir John Betjeman is made Poet Laureate.
(1st January) The United Kingdom joins the EEC, which was later to become the European Union.
The Cornish Chough became extinct in Cornwall.
(21st July) Liskeard Swimming Pool was opened by HRH Princess Margaret.
Wolf Rock became the first rock lighthouse to install a helipad, easing the delivery of food, water and oil and bringing keepers and mechanics to the tower.
Reform of Cornish Stannary Parliament.
(1st April) Local Government re-organisation establishes six new districts, Penwith, Kerrier, Carrick, Restormel, Caradon and North Cornwall.
Creation of the Cornish Studies Library in Redruth.
Most of the Penrose Estate near Porthleven was gifted to the National Trust by Lt Cdr J P Rogers, which comprises of over 1500 acres of farmland and woods, cottages, four miles of coastline and the Loe Pool.
Polkyth Recreation Centre in St. Austell was built.
(25th January) The coaster 'Lovat' sank in a WNW gale gusting to hurricane force, 25 miles south of Penzance. All crew were lost.
The North Cornwall Courier newspaper commences publication in Bodmin, continues as the Cornwall Courier, published in Falmouth, and thence until 1986, to be succeeded by the Newquay Packet and the St. Austell Packet (local editions of the Falmouth Packet).
The filming of the famous Poldark series begins using many locations on the north coast.
(12th February) Sir Robert Ernest Williams, 9th Baronet of Tregullow dies aged 52.
(June) Liskeard by-pass opened thus relieving the town centre of most of the heavy traffic travelling along the A38.
(24th September) 80 properties in Polperro are seriously flooded.
The Seal Sanctuary moves to a large new site at Gweek.
St. Winnow Barton Farm Museum is opened.
A new by-pass is opened at Launceston to carry the A30 trunk road south of the town.
(13th February) The St. Malo trawler 'Enfant du Bretagne' was lost on the Western Rocks, Isles of Scilly at night. The lifeboat came within hearing distance of the crew, but all drowned in the heavy seas before they could be brought aboard.
(6th August) HRH The Queen and Prince Philip arrived at Falmouth on the Royal Yacht Britannia during their Silver Jubilee tour of Cornwall and went on to Truro, St. Columb, Bodmin and St. Austell during their visit.
The Stannators right to veto Westminster legislation is confirmed by Parliament.
A new by-pass is opened at Bodmin to carry the A30 trunk road south of the town.
Peter Denis Mitchell who lived at Glynn House near Cardinham receives the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory.
(June) Indian Queens Preaching Pit is restored.
The final section of The Coastal Footpath was designated as a National Trail.
(6th July) An RAF plane crashed into the village of Tintagel after suffering engine failure. Amazingly no one was killed, especially as it was just yards away from a loaded petrol tanker.
(14th August) 25 yachts sank off Land's End in the extreme weather in the Fastnet race with the loss of 18 lives.
(December) Winds of over 100mph swept across west Cornwall.
(4th January) The Scottish trawler 'Bounteous' sank in Mount's Bay, Penzance with the loss of three lives.
(January) Miss Dorothy Yglesias is awarded an MBE in recognition of the many years of dedication at the Mousehole Bird Sanctuary.
(June) Beynon Shipping Company, donated the harbour at Portreath to Kerrier District Council.
(6th October) Cornwall Hospice Care opened Mount Edgcumbe Hospice in St. Austell.
(29th October) The Cornish author A. K. Hamilton Jenkins dies aged 80, he was best known for writing 'The Cornish Miner'.
(8th April) HRH Prince Andrew's helicopter flying training was conducted at RNAS Culdrose. He was presented with his 'Wings' and the award for the best pilot.
(23rd June) HRH Princess Margaret visits RAF St. Mawgan, near Newquay.
(20th December) Penlee Lifeboat Disaster - eight lifeboatmen, all unpaid volunteers, perished today off Land's End with four shipwrecked sailors they had rescued. The lifeboat 'Solomon Browne' was launched from the fishing village of Mousehole into hurricane-lashed seas and was crushed against the 1,400ton coaster, 'Union Star', by 60 foot waves.
(31st December) Westward TV is taken over by Television South West.
The population of Cornwall is now 418,631 persons.
(2nd April) Argentina invades the Falkland Islands, an event that instigated the Falklands War.
(May) The Launceston Steam Rally started at the Launceston Rugby Club.
(15th June) The Falklands war ends when Argentine troops surrender to the British.
(August) The Tall Ships Race started in Falmouth.
(17th January) Radio Cornwall begins its service in Truro.
Tehidy Country Park was bought by Cornwall County Council.
(27th May) St. Columb was visited by HRH Prince and Princess of Wales (Charles and Diana) to commemorate the 650th anniversary of the signing of the town charter by Edward III.
(16th July) A British Airways Sikorsky S-61 Helicopter crashed in the Atlantic Ocean, when en route from Penzance to St. Mary's, Isles of Scilly in thick fog. Only six of the twenty six on board survived.
Troika Pottery based in Newlyn finally closes.
Winston Graham, author of the Poldark novels is awarded an OBE.
(3rd October) Freight finally ceased on The Bodmin and Wenford Railway when a need to invest in new track forced closure of the line.
(26th December) Launceston Steam Railway opens on the original LSWR Track.
The Gazette: Launceston and Bude newspaper commences publication in Launceston. In 1987 it becomes The Launceston and Bude Gazette, in 1989 the Launceston, Bude and Holsworthy Gazette, and changes its title again, to the Journal Gazette in 1991.
(19th May) Author Sir John Betjeman dies aged 78.
(7th June) HRH Prince Charles and the Princess of Wales visit the Royal Cornwall Show.
Construction of Colliford Lake is completed and the area of 900 acres is flooded.
(16th October) HRH Princess Anne visits The John Daniel Centre for adults with learning disabilities at Penzance.
Geo-thermal experiments using hot-rock energy are successful at Rosemanowes, Longdowns, near Helston.
(31st May) A fire at St. Dennis church destroys most of the building, only the porch and the tower survived. The church is re-built, mostly by local people, over the next two years.
(June) Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother makes a visit to the Royal Cornwall Show.
(12th August) Simon Le Bon aboard the yacht 'Drum' capsized off the coast at Falmouth when their keel sheared off, all were rescued by helicopter.
The Cornwall Heritage Trust is founded.
(14th October) A new HMS 'Cornwall' type 22 frigate is launched by HRH Diana, Princess of Wales and based at Devonport. She was commissioned in 1988 at Falmouth.
(22nd February) Jeannie Tangye, husband of Derek Tangye, famous for the Minack Chronicles, dies aged 66.
(March) The toll-house beside Palmers Bridge on Bodmin Moor is demolished to make way for a A30 road improvement scheme.
(May) The Saints' Way is officially opened.
Creation of the new Courts of Justice at Truro, designed by Evans and Shalev, begins.
(1st April) Britain's first Air Ambulance service is launched in Cornwall.
The Duke of Cornwall suggests the formation of a Devon and Cornwall Development Corporation thereby promoting closer administrative links. Concerned Cornish label this concept 'Devonwall'.
(May) Perranzabuloe Folk Museum is officially opened.
Cape Cornwall is donated to the nation by the H. J. Heinz Company.
Entrepreneur and property developer, Peter de Savary, bought Land's End from David Goldstone for nearly seven million pounds and over the next four years, de Savary invested five million pounds restoring the site and upgrading the facilities.
(16th October) A great storm hits Cornwall along with the rest of southern Britain. Winds of 80mph flatten many trees and destroys many roofs.
(11th March) Nicholas Richard Michael Eliot, 9th Earl of St. Germans dies aged 74. He was educated at Eton and became a Captain in the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, attached to the Royal Armoured Corps.
(30th June) HRH Princess Diana opened a new market building on Newlyn Harbour.
(6th July) Pollution of Lowermoor Water Treatment Works, Camelford with twenty tonnes of aluminium sulphate. Many people who came into contact with the contaminated water experienced a range of short-term health effects. The event was described as Britain's worst mass poisoning event.
(11th August) The Rebel Cinema opens at Poundstock near Bude.
Mount Edgcumbe House is opened to the public.
The town of Saltash is by-passed with a three lane tunnel on the Cornish side carrying the A38.
(18th May) HRH Princess Diana, Duchess of Cornwall, breezed into Truro for a fleeting visit.
Duporth manor house near St. Austell is demolished to make way for housing developments.
(15th December) A major storm damages most of the Christmas illuminations around Mousehole harbour.
(25th January) Storm winds of 77 mph are recorded in Falmouth. The Polurian Hotel at Mullion loses its roof. 400,000 South West residents are left without power for two hours. 50,000 Cornish residents lose power for over 24 hours.
(16th February) Geevor tin mine finally closes.
(April) The first World Pilot Gig Championships are held at The Isles of Scilly.
(17th June) Bodmin and Wenford Railway opened between Bodmin Parkway and Bodmin General.
Geevor tin mine closes.
(December) A new quay was constructed on Bryher by Anneka Rice and her team for the TV series "Challenge Anneka".
(January) HRH Princess Diana makes a visit to Truro Cathedral.
Cornwall's unemployment has increased by 300% since 1961 to 20,000.
(3rd March) Restoration of The Lost Gardens of Heligan is begun.
A visitor centre is opened at Gwennap Pit.
Caerhays Gardens first opened to the public.
Cornwall Coliseum at Carlyon Bay, near St. Austell finally closes.
The population of Cornwall is now 468,425 persons.
(Easter) The Lost Gardens of Heligan open to the public.
(3rd April) Cornwall's first commercial radio station, Pirate FM102, begins broadcasting from Redruth.
The Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust was established at Treliske, Truro. HRH Princess Diana performed the opening.
(12th June) There was major damage caused by surface water flooding due to severe storms around Bude.
(29th June) St. Michael's church in Newquay was destroyed by an arson attack.
The joint Cornwall and Devon bid for Objective One funds fails because of Devon's high GDP.
With the pumps no longer de-watering Wheal Jane Mine near Chacewater, acid water rose through the abandoned workings and escaped into the surface water systems, which then flowed into the Carnon Valley and eventually into Falmouth Bay, killing fish and contaminating wild fowl. By 1994, remedial measures including the construction of large settling ponds, were in place. By 2002 the water treatment had cost more than £20 million.
The port of Charlestown is purchased by Square Sail Shipyard.
(August) Geevor tin mine opens as a heritage centre.
A by-pass to carry the A39 is built around the town of Wadebridge to relieve the gridlock of traffic which occurred every summer.
The Cable and Wireless college at Porthcurno closed.
(30th December) Polperro suffers extensive flooding and 99 properties are deluged.
(31st March) The Queen handed out maundy money during a visit to Truro Cathedral.
(2nd June) Callington Heritage Centre opened.
Screech Owl Sanctuary opened near Indian Queens.
(August) Newquay holds the UK's first World Surfing Championship.
A new by-pass is opened to move the A39 main road out and around Penryn.
(24th November) The 'Chrisande' capsized North West of Bude.
Seaton Valley Country Park is opened by Caradon District Council.
The Ministry of Agriculture conducted an official investigation into the Beast of Bodmin.
Land's End goes on sale in a package deal with John O'Groats.
Statistics reveal that out of 56 deprived communities in Cornwall, Devon and Somerset, 51 are in Cornwall.
(15th August) Bodmin and Wenford Railway is extended to Boscarne Junction.
(26th October) Author of the Minack Chronicles, Derek Tangye dies aged 84.
(11th November) West Cornwall was hit by its biggest earthquake in 15 years. The British Geological Survey said the tremor was felt in towns and villages from Padstow to Land's End, and measured 3.8 on the Richter scale.
(13th February) The container ship 'Tokio Express' was hit by freak wave and 62 containers, one of them filled with nearly 4.8 million pieces of Lego bound for New York were lost overboard about twenty miles off Land's End.
(1st May) The Japanese Garden opens near the village of St. Mawgan.
(July) A major restoration programme is carried out at Penlee House Art Gallery and Museum.
Channel 5 TV comes to Cornwall from the transmitting station at Four Lanes near Redruth.
(15th November) The inaugural performance at The Hall for Cornwall takes place.
The annual value of fish landed at Newlyn was a record breaking £23.4 million.
Trevarno Gardens are opened to the public.
(May) Porthcurno Telegraph Museum opened to the public.
(19th July) The Cutty Sark Tall Ships Race started in Falmouth.
The new £27 million Trelawny Wing at Treliske Hospital, Truro was officially opened.
Alison Streeter swam from Isles of Scilly to the mainland, the first person ever to complete this swim.
(February) Cornwall County Council vote in support of the campaign to include Cornish as a minority ethnic group for the purposes of the forthcoming 2001 Census. The Government's Office of National Statistics subsequently agrees the inclusion.
(20th March) The artist Patrick Heron died at his home in Zennor in aged 79.
(25th March) Cornwall is awarded Objective One status.
(22nd May) Cornwall beat Gloucestershire at Twickenham in the Rugby Union County Championship.
(August) The Government's Compliance Report to the Council of Europe's Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities declines to recognise the term 'national minority' as applicable and applies the Council of Europe principles to ethnic groups and visible minorities, using the Race Relations Act 1976 to define racial groups. The Scots, Welsh and Irish, although not 'national minorities' as defined by the Government, are included as racial groups, implying that the Cornish are neither.
(11th August) A total eclipse of the Sun occurs over the south-western part of the UK mainland.
(June) HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh visits Polzeath to open a new surf lifesaving centre.
Saltash Museum opened.
The Camelford Way is opened.
The sea lock gates on Bude Canal were replaced at a cost of £500,000.
(30th October) Cornwall is lashed with heavy rain and gale force winds causing much damage and flooding.
(March) Foot and mouth disease spreads to Cornwall causing many restrictions of access to farms and the cancellation of agricultural shows.
(15th May) HRH Prince Charles visits The Eden Project.
(13th June) A reclusive octogenarian has turned down a multi-million-pound offer to turn her Cornish island into a theme park. Babs Atkins, 83, rejected the money in order to protect the wildlife on St. George's Island, off Looe. She refused to name the business that offered her the money, but has said she will leave the island to the Cornwall Wildlife Trust.
(18th June) The Eden Project, celebrated its one millionth visitor just three months after its official opening.
(16th August) Tony and Cherie Blair visited Charlestown as part of their holiday.
(September) The Newquay Voice, a local weekly newspaper is launched by Andrew and Chrissie Laming from Newquay.
(22nd October) The Cornwall Centre opens at Alma Place, Redruth, as a significant town centre regeneration project, at a cost of £2.6million. It incorporates the much-enlarged Cornish Studies Library with a visitor centre, twelve shop units with a market stall area, and Cornwall's first 'Forum' scheme for housing and training homeless young people.
(December) The Tamar Bridge at Saltash is strengthened and widened to five lanes at a total cost of £34 million.
The population of Cornwall is now 501,267 persons.
(March) The Council of Europe request the Government to consult the Cornish with a view to incorporating Cornish language, history and culture into the education curriculum.
(April) Liskeard and District Museum was re-opened in the refurbished and extended Foresters Hall.
(April) The former Admiralty supply boat 'Sanu' took shelter in the Gannel Estuary while heading along the north Cornish coast bound for Bristol and restoration. She was driven up the estuary on a spring tide and grounded. The wreck was finally removed in October 2013.
(26th April) The Tamar Bridge at Saltash was officially re-opened by HRH Princess Anne, exactly forty years after the initial opening.
(1st May) HRH The Queen and Prince Philip, The Duke of Edinburgh, as part of the Golden Jubilee celebrations visited the National Maritime Museum in Falmouth; The Queen viewed a Celebration of Cornish Gardens at Trelissick, whilst The Duke of Edinburgh visited the Falmouth College of Arts.
(5th November) UK Government confirms that Cornish will be included in the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, joining Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Irish, Scots and Ulster Scots as a protected and promoted language within the United Kingdom.
(18th January) A fire broke out on the Queens Wharf dock at Falmouth which spanned 360 feet; the dock was well alight. Eleven appliances attended as well as a fire-boat, which surveyed the situation from the bay.
Port Elliot House and grounds are opened to the public.
The Cornish language is recognised under the Charter for Regional and Minority Languages and the Government has provided up to £150,000 a year to support its development.
(17th June) HRH Princess Alexandra visited Cornwall to open a number of projects in the county. She began the day by launching a Home Start scheme in Helston. Her day culminated in a trip to Paradise Park in Hayle.
(10th July) The author of the Poldark novels Winston Graham dies aged 95.
(28th February) Brigadier Nicholas Crespigny Laurence Vivian, 6th Baron Vivian of Truro dies aged 69. He became deputy commander of the land forces in Cyprus in 1984. He joined the House of Lords, where he was Shadow Minister for Defence between 1994 and 2000.
(18th March) Redruth Brewery closes.
(13th April) Baseresult claims a new era of mining has begun at South Crofty mine, which it acquired in 2001, with the blasting of a new tunnel to link the Tuckingmill Decline with New Cook's Kitchen shaft. The company estimates an 80-year life for the mine.
(15th April) HRH Prince Edward visits a gallery on the Isles of Scilly.
(13th August) Bill Bishop, Rugby Football Union President in 1995-96, the year the game went open, dies aged 74 in St Julia's Hospice, Hayle.
(16th August) Boscastle and Crackington Haven are inundated with devastating floods, which result in extensive damage and loss of property but no loss of life. A major incident was declared and search and rescue helicopters from RNAS Culdrose along with other helicopters throughout the south-west assisted the fire brigade and Coastguard in evacuating people.
(September) Probus Gardens are closed after disputes regarding the lease.
(1st October) The Delabole Wind Farm closes.
Bodmin Jail re-opened as a restaurant and museum.
(November) Cornwall's first undercover ice rink opens at Eden.
(9th April) HRH Prince Charles Duke of Cornwall marries Camilla Parker Bowles and upon their marriage she became the Duchess of Cornwall.
(28th April) Work starts on clearing the overgrown Helston Railway.
The annual value of china clay sold from the UK is over £200 million. UK china clay from the St. Austell area is used for paper coatings (21%), paper filling (49%), ceramics (21%) and plastics, rubber, paint, etc (9%).
(June) Constantine Heritage Centre opens to the public.
(19th July) Seaton Valley Country Park became Cornwall's first Green Flag Countryside Park and Local Nature Reserve after passing a tough inspection with flying colours.
The St. Austell Voice newspaper commences publication.
(September) The Eden Project opens its new building called the 'Core' which includes an education facility, incorporating classrooms and exhibition spaces designed to help communicate Eden's central message about the relationship between people and plants.
(25th November) Hundreds of cars became stuck on the A30 over Bodmin Moor after heavy snow and slippery conditions caused a crash involving several cars. Many children also got stuck in their schools for several hours, as the snow meant they could not leave and parents could not come to collect them. Almost 70 of Cornwall's 273 schools were closed.
(2nd March) Cornish MP Dan Rogerson asked the government to make 5th March a public holiday in Cornwall to recognise St. Piran's Day celebrations.
(19th May) Jamie Oliver opens a new restaurant 'Fifteen' at Watergate Bay.
(1st June) HRH the Queen visits The Eden Project to officially open the new Core building.
(8th June) Mevagissey Aquarium re-opens after the replacement of its 50 year old tanks.
(4th July) Imerys announce the loss of 800 jobs from the china clay industry around St. Austell. Also Par docks ceased to operate as a port and is now used just as a drying plant, with the railway line to Fowey docks converted to road used to ship the clay from there.
(24th July) Cornwall hosted the Inter-Celtic Water-sports Festival ending at Falmouth.
The university at Penryn starts offering courses on Cornish Studies.
Two extensions to the Camel Trail were completed. The first was from Scarlett’s Well car park in Bodmin up into the town. The second was from Poley's Bridge near St.Breward to Wenfordbridge through the old clay dries, which was made possible by Imerys donating the land.
(4th March) A large fire at Callington Heritage Centre caused extensive damage to the building and the exhibits.
(May) A Roman fortlet is discovered close to Restormel Castle.
(11th May) The Goss Moor Multi-use Trail was officially opened.
(7th June) HRH Prince Edward, The Earl of Wessex visited the Royal Cornwall Show.
(11th June) A 70-tonne granite sculpture of a seed has been 'planted' at The Eden Project. The 13 foot high work carved by sculptor Peter Randall-Page and blasted from De Lank Quarry on Bodmin Moor is the centrepiece of Eden's new £15m Core education centre.
(21st June) Boscastle is flooded again with three feet of water flowing down the roads.
(25th June) The A30 from the end of the Bodmin by-pass across Goss Moor is finally upgraded to a dual carriageway providing much a better traffic flow and avoiding a low bridge. Part of the old route was made into the Goss Moor Cycle Path.
(18th August) Penhallow hotel in Newquay was destroyed by fire and cost the lives of three people.
(3rd September) Radio Scilly is launched on the The Isles of Scilly.
(18th October) The Castle, Bude is opened to the public as a restaurant and heritage centre.
(November) The Hall for Cornwall holds a Celebration Gala Concert which was attended by HRH Prince Edward.
(21st December) Lescudjack Hill Fort was formally handed over to public use as part of the Montol Festival.
(January) Wheal Peevor Mine Site and Multi-use Trail is opened.
(January) Radio St. Austell Bay launched in the St. Austell area.
(19th May) The standard written form of the Cornish language was agreed.
The pedestrian precinct in St. Austell is re-developed again and called White River Place.
(7th June) HRH Princess Anne, The Princess Royal visited the Royal Cornwall Show.
(10th June) 26 Dolphins were found dead in different river creeks near St. Mawes. Another 40 were helped to safety and guided back to deeper waters.
(July) The Eden Project welcomed its ten millionth visitor.
(August) A million pounds has been awarded to 'Funding for Cornish Museums'. Four major museums: the Royal Cornwall Museum, Geevor Tin Mine, Porthcurno Telegraph Museum and the Penlee House Gallery and Museum, will be reaping the benefits.
(30th October) Parts of north Cornwall are hit by serious flooding.
(19th December) The new by-pass relieving Dobwalls near Liskeard of its heavy traffic burden along the A38 is finally opened.
(20th January) Three people were injured when an aircraft crashed at Land's End Airport as it tried to take off.
An Eco-Town has been short listed for construction in the St. Austell area.
(Easter) Newquay Zoo is expanded by 3.5 acres to include an African Savanna area.
(14th May) A large fire caused the destruction of the fishermen's stores at Padstow.
(4th June) An election for Cornwall's new unitary council took place. There are now 123 councillors.
(19th June) First cases of swine flu hit Penzance.
(13th July) A private buyer bought the Upton Towans beach near Hayle for £80,000.
(13th July) HRH The Princess Royal officially opened the Lizard Lighthouse Heritage Centre.
The Spirit of the West theme park closes for re-development.
(November) Cornwall is crowned Best UK Holiday Destination.
(23rd December) Two women died and another 47 people were injured in a coach crash. The coach rolled on to its side after skidding on sheet ice on an un-gritted road in Townshend, near Hayle.
(January) Heavy snow hits Newquay bringing the town to a standstill for hours.
(11th March) The fishing vessel 'Ben My Chree' started to sink seventeen miles north-east of the Isles of Scilly and four of the crew taken off by RNAS Culdrose helicopter and one by the St. Mary's relief lifeboat 'Daniel L Gibson', she later sank a mile off Gwennap Head.
(31st March) The visitor centre at Goonhilly Earth Satellite Station finally closes after years of threats to do so.
(August) Sir David Attenborough films a wildlife documentary at The Eden Project.
(24th August) David Cameron's wife Samantha gives birth to their fourth child in Truro hospital.
(16th September) Trewey Mill at Zennor Wayside Folk Museum is restored and put into working condition.
(29th September) Cornish Country Larder near Newquay won several gold awards and a trophy at a national cheese making competition.
(September) Wave Hub installed off the Cornish coast near Hayle. The world's largest wave energy site.
(27th October) The Fish Factory ship the 'Athena' caught fire 230 miles of the south-west coast of the Isles of Scilly. 98 of the 111 crew were forced to abandon ship into the life rafts; these were picked up by the container ship the 'Vega'. The 'Athena' which was on fire for thirteen days before being finally extinguished was then taken under tow to Falmouth Bay,
(17th November) More than 100 homes are evacuated after floods and gale-force winds caused disruption across Cornwall. Altarnun, St. Blazey, St. Austell, Mevagissey, Pentewan and Lostwithiel are the worst hit areas. The Eden Project was hit by three foot of flood-water in places, was expecting to be closed for at least a week. The Lost Gardens of Heligan were also closed for three days.
(11th January) It was announced that part of the site at Goonhilly is to be sold to create a space science centre.
(22nd February) Delabole wind farm re-opened with four new huge wind turbines replacing the ten earlier smaller ones.
(22nd February) The term "Cornish Pasty" has been given protected status by the European Commission.
(17th March) The Eden Project celebrates its tenth anniversary.
(April) St. Hilary Heritage Centre opened to the public.
(13th May) More than 50 Firefighters spent several hours tackling a large fire at the derelict Redruth Brewery.
(21st May) Edward James Buckingham, a postman from Saltash became the first Cornishman to climb Mount Everest.
(18th May) Land's End is announced as the starting point for the 2012 Olympic torch relay across Britain.
(4th June) HRH Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip visit the Isles of Scilly.
(16th June) St. Austell Museum opened to the public.
(17th June) A fire involving gas cylinders occurred on Falmouth Docks. The fire brigade extinguished the initial fire but then had to cool the cylinders constantly for 24 hours to prevent the cylinders from exploding due to the heat and pressure build-up.
(29th June) A mini tsunami, caused by an underwater landslide, sweeps up the south west coast of Cornwall, felt first at St. Michael's Mount, later causing some rivers to briefly appear to change direction, and fish to jump out of the water.
(3rd August) The 9000 tonne MV 'Karin Schepers', a Dutch cargo ship, ran aground with its skipper intoxicated, between Cape Cornwall and Pendeen Watch. The crew managed to re-float the ship and continue on its journey from Cork to Rotterdam.
(8th September) A 13th century solid silver seal found on farmland near Newquay has been declared treasure trove at an inquest.
(28th September) The Tortoise Garden near St. Austell made national headlines after Cornwall Council reclassified the sanctuary as a zoo and ordered owner Joy Bloor to pay £1,000 for a licence. The local authority said the tortoises were 'wild animals', not domestic pets, and Joy, who was unable to pay the licence costs, closed the attraction.
(September) A contemporary School of Art was formed in Newlyn with Arts Council funding which offers short courses taught by some of the most well known artists working in Cornwall.
(4th December) An earthquake was felt in the Bodmin area of Cornwall. The 2.2-magnitude tremor hit at 02:40 GMT.
(6th December) HRH Princess Anne visits the Tamar Bridge at Saltash which celebrates its 50th anniversary.
(December) Helston Railway is re-opened for passengers.
(20th December) The fishing vessel 'Heather Anne' sank in Gerrans Bay on The Roseland Peninsula with the loss of one of the two crew.
The population of Cornwall is now 537,400 persons.
(14th March) St. Austell looses its bid to be given city status.
(27th March) A St. Mabyn parish councillor became the first in Cornwall to be disqualified from holding public office,and was banned for two years for bullying and showing disrespect to members.
(April) The Trevarno Estate is sold off as separate lots and the gardens closed to the public.
(23rd April) The tug 'Aquarius' sank 45 miles off the Lizard with one of the three crew missing.
(30th April) Falmouth Beach Hotel was devastated by a fire which caused significant damage to the building.
(19th May) The 2012 Olympic torch parade sets off from Land's End on its journey across Cornwall.
(13th July) The Grade II listed 18th century harbour of Charlestown has gone on sale for £4.4 million.
(18th July) three lifeboat crew members were awarded medals for their bravery in saving the life of a man who had become trapped in dangerous waters off Port Isaac.
(23rd July) Four unusual medieval carvings are discovered on a cross in Gulval churchyard near Penzance.
(July) The Eden Project opened the longest zip wire in England, giving visitors an exhilarating ride across the top of the world-famous Biomes.
(August) Works starts on building The Cornwall Energy Recovery Centre near St. Dennis.
(27th November) It was announced that University College Falmouth, located at Penryn, is to be granted full university status and to be known as Falmouth University.
(6th March) BT announces plans to connect the Isles of Scilly to the Internet by fibre optic cable.
(7th March) Ben Ainslie receives Knighthood to mark the culmination of over twenty years dedicated to the Olympics and the pursuit of gold.
(9th April) A new £1 million passenger terminal was officially opened at Land's End airport. Work included new baggage handling and arrivals facilities and a new control tower.
(5th May) A 51 year old man and his eight year old daughter, have died after a speedboat crashed off Padstow harbour.
(5th May) Anthony Rogers of Carwinion House near Falmouth dies aged 75. His widow, Jane, must now leave the house which has been her home for more than 20 years as under the terms of an agreement signed in 1969 the property now passes completely to the National Trust.
(7th June) - HRH Princess Anne, The Princess Royal visits the Royal Cornwall Show.
(20th August) A devastating fire destroys Great Trethew Manor near Liskeard.
(28th August) The French trawler 'Scuderia' ran aground at Lankidden Cove, on the east side of the Lizard between Coverack and Cadgwith. None of the five crew were injured. She was re-floated on 3rd September and towed to Falmouth for repairs.
(28th September) Wadebridge Museum opened on a re-developed site.
(5th October) The Old Ship Inn on Garrett Street in Cawsand had been derelict for four years when it caught fire and burned down on Saturday.
(3rd November) The French fishing vessel 'Panamera' sank off Lizard Point. There was no loss of life amongst her French and Portuguese crew.
(25th December) A road collapsed during stormy weather trapping several cars at Calstock.
(5th January) More heavy storms batter the coasts of Cornwall causing much damage, flooding and power cuts. A road down to the beach at Newquay is washed away.
(9th January) A bottle-nosed dolphin is washed up on Par beach and successfully redirected back out to sea.
(1st February) The French trawler 'Le Sillon' went aground at Park Head near Porthcothan Bay after losing power and steering approximately five miles off Trevose Head. All six of the crew were safely rescued. Five crew members were recovered by a rescue helicopter from RNAS Culdrose, the skipper was picked up by the Padstow Lifeboat.
(3rd February) Many storms lash across Cornwall causing much damage and flooding especially along the coasts in place such as Looe and Newlyn. At Penzance much damage was caused to the Jubilee Pool and to the promenade. One violent storm smashed the harbour gates at Porthleven and sank several fishing boats moored in the harbour.
(13th February) Harvey's Foundry Trust has been awarded £4million from HLF to conserve and adapt for commercial use the remaining derelict Grade II listed buildings at the 19th century Harvey’s Foundry in Hayle.
(14th April) A new 100 foot rope bridge is opened across the Jungle at The Lost Gardens of Heligan.
(24th April) Cornwall is given National Minority' status under EU law.
(29th June) A giant 44 pound jellyfish was filmed in an estuary near St. Mawes.
(July) Land's End airport finally gets its grass runways surfaced after many winters of being waterlogged for weeks at a time.
(14th July) The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall tour Looe, where they meet members of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution and visit businesses affected by flooding earlier in the year. Later they visit Cornish Orchards in Duloe and Trewithen Dairy in Lostwithiel to celebrate their 20th anniversary.
(16th July) The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall visit Tregunnel Hill, Newquay a mixed-use neighbourhood of 174 homes on Duchy of Cornwall land which is due to be completed in 2015. The Duchess of Cornwall visited Camel Valley Vineyard to celebrate the their 25th anniversary.
(23rd July) A woman from Somerset, who overcame ME, became the first person to swim from the Cornish mainland to the Isles of Scilly.
(28th August) The Tall Ships Regatta started in Falmouth.
(September) The Eden Project starts employing apprentices.
(9th January) A 65 foot long fin whale was washed up on Wanson Beach near Bude.
(12th January) Two new helicopters to serve the people of Cornwall have been unveiled before the staff and volunteers of Cornwall Air Ambulance Trust.
(15th February) A 2,500 year old Egyptian bronze cat found in Penzance which was nearly thrown in a skip, has been sold at auction for £52,000.
(13th March) The Western Greyhound bus company based near Newquay went into liquidation and all their drivers made redundant.
(23rd March) Work starts on widening the last stretch of the A30 road at Temple on Bodmin Moor to dual carriageway.
(April) The Eden Project starts planting a Redwood Forest.
(21st May) 771 Naval Air Squadron from RNAS Culdrose perform a flypast over West Cornwall to celebrate their 76th and last anniversary. The squadron will be disbanded early next year when the Coastguard takes over SAR duties.
(5th June) HRH Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy visits the Royal Cornwall Show.
(16th July) Cornwall is to become the first county to gain historic new powers after a devolution deal was announced.
(2nd September) A blue whale is spotted off the Cornish coast 250 miles from Land's End for first time ever by a stunned scientist.
(17th September) HRH Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex visited Mount Edgcumbe Hospice at St. Austell to mark its 35th anniversary.
(8th October) Hugh Scully, TV presenter dies aged 72 at his home near Truro.
(16th October) Bodmin community cinema closes.
(25th October) Three sightings of the Beast of Bodmin have been reported in just one week in Cornwall by seven unrelated holidaymakers.
(9th November) Anthony Fortescue, owner of Boconnoc and High Sheriff of Cornwall, was found dead aged 69 following a firearms incident which is not being treated as suspicious.
(27th November) A large chunk of an American space rocket measuring about 32 feet by 13 feet was found in the sea off the Isles of Scilly.
(31st December) The James Stevens No 10 lifeboat which served in St. Ives, sunk in Hayle estuary during a storm. The thirty five foot vessel was restored in 2002 and had been in use for pleasure trips.
(25th January) The Coxless Crew, led by Laura Penhaul from Redruth, Cornwall, have set two world records; the first all-female team to complete the challenge and the first team of four to row the Pacific.
(8th February) Storm Imogen bought strong winds, with gusts of more than 70mph, brought down power lines and numerous trees, causing widespread disruption to traffic across Cornwall. Flooding occurs at Portreath.
(February) The go-ahead is given to build the new Callywith College at Bodmin.
(7th March) A former fish merchants building is to become the home to Newlyn's first cinema in more than 50 years.
(9th March) Cornwall is lashed by winds of up to 90mph causing lots of damage to roofs and bringing down many trees.
(21st April) Cornish language funding stopped by government. Cornwall council is yet to confirm whether any jobs will be lost as a result of the funding cut.
(6th May) St. Ives holds a referendum (which was successful) to stop the building of second homes, meaning that new housing projects will only get planning permission if reserved for full-time residents.
(11th May) Boris Johnson kicked off a west country bus tour to galvanise support for the Brexit referendum with stop at Lemon Quay in Truro.
(23rd June) Cornwall along with the rest of the UK votes to leave the EU in a referendum.
(10th July) A 40 foot sperm whale is washed up dead on Perranporth beach.
(8th August) A "significant fire" which broke out at a recycling centre at St. Erth near Hayle continued to blaze throughout the night. A large diesel and oil tank was caught up in the fire and the large plume of smoke could be seen for miles. The main railway line was closed as was the A30 road. The fire burnt for three days and the whole site was completely destroyed.
(12th September) The Cornish landmark Brown Willy is up for sale for £2.8 million. The 1,378 ft tor, which is Cornwall's highest peak, forms part of the 1,221 acres of land up for sale on Bodmin Moor.
(20th October) A so-called "six star" holiday resort to be developed by Alton Towers founder John Broome has been given planning approval. John Broome plans to build more than 200 lodges, a "tropical pool", restaurants and an activities centre, at his Camel Creek resort near Wadebridge.
(27th October) A 2.3-magnitude earthquake was felt by people living as far as twenty miles from the epicentre on Bodmin Moor, who reported being woken up by the tremor which hit at about 03:00 BST.
(27th October) The Prime Minister Theresa May flew into Cornwall to meet with local business leaders at Newquay Airport.
(13th December) A shipwreck has been rediscovered at the same spot a similar wreckage was filmed for the BBC TV drama Poldark. The remains of the Schiedam - which sank in 1684 - were first found off the coast of Cornwall in 1971 but then buried under shifting sands. Divers David Gibbins and Mark Milburn made the find after many attempts at Gunwalloe Church Cove, near Mullion.
(20th December) Thousands of fish were washed up on Marazion Beach near Penzance, a fortnight after a similar mass beaching nearby. A carpet of sardines and other fish appeared on the beach on Saturday evening and many remained there on Monday.
(2nd January) West Carclaze located north of St. Austell has been designated as one of the countries 14 new 'Garden Villages' proposed by the Government.
(30th January) A dolphin which was stranded on the coast at the Lizard was rescued and released back into the sea.
(4th March) The main power cable which supplies the Isles of Scilly with electricity from the mainland was broken, leaving the islanders to rely on generators for many days.
(20th March) It has been announced that the only care home on the Isles of Scilly, Park House, is to close due to staffing issues.
(March) A new Rainforest Canopy Walkway opens at The Eden Project offering breathtaking views across the Tropical Biome.
(11th April) St. Ives bay has been voted as the fourth best view in Britain.
(28th April) A large fire was started in a scrap yard at Dobwalls near Liskeard after a gas cannister left in a car, exploded. The fire burned overnight and caused an estimated £10,000 of damage.
(22nd May) Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson visits St. Ives during his election campaign.
(June) Two adult beavers, one male, one female, were released into a pond at Ladock near Truro and have been left to re-engineer the area through dam and canal building.
(9th June) HRH Prince Edward the Earl of Wessex makes a visit to the Royal Cornwall Show.
(9th June) Lady Mary Christina Holborow, DCVO, daughter of the 8th Earl of Courtown and the former Lord Lieutenant of Cornwall, dies aged 81 at her home near Truro. She had also served as chair on the board of trustees at Cornwall Air Ambulance Trust.
(30th June) Four men were arrested on suspicion of immigration offences after a yacht was raided off the Isles of Scilly.
(14th July) The long awaited completion of the A30 dual carriageway across Bodmin Moor at Temple is finally opened to traffic, removing the long hold-ups that occurred every summer.
(18th July) The village of Coverack is severely flooded after heavy storms in the area. About 50 properties were damaged and roads were swept away, and although people had to be rescued nobody was hurt.
(2nd August) The biggest blue shark ever caught in British waters, weighing 256 pounds was caught off Penzance, smashing a 58-year-old record.
(7th September) The new Callywith College at Bodmin opens its doors to its first batch of students.
(11th September) A huge Leatherback turtle was washed up dead in Portreath harbour.
(10th October) Rugby union legend from Cornwall, Brian 'Stack' Stevens, passed away aged 77.
(26th October) The Bloodhound supersonic car which is aiming to break the world land speed record, is tested at 200 mph at Newquay Airport.
(10th December) Strong winds brought down power lines and trees and caused travel disruption across the county.
(17th December) A huge fire forced part of a Cornish holiday park at Summercourt near Newquay to shut, with just a week to go until Christmas.
(31st December) A woman died after a massive house fire in Looe that broke out just hours before the Cornish town welcomed in the New Year. The bungalow was completely destroyed.
(3rd January) Storm Eleanor caused significant damage to coastal villages, with gusts of up to 80mph and powerful tides. 65 feet of the harbour wall at Portreath was washed away by the high tide.
(15th January) Surgeon Captain Rick Jolly, from Torpoint dies aged 71. He saved the life of every British serviceman he treated, working amid terrible conditions in the field during the Falklands conflict.
(22nd February) An £8.4 million space communication base to track missions to the Moon and Mars will be created at Goonhilly Earth Station, on the Lizard peninsula by upgrading one of its satellite antenna.
(2nd March) Heavy snow falls across most of Cornwall causing chaos on the roads.
(15th March) Work has begun to create the first lido in the UK to be heated by geothermal energy. Drilling has started at Jubilee Pool, Penzance to make a geothermal well which will draw up water that has been heated deep underground. The heat will then be transferred to water in adjacent pipes which carry water to the pool.
(2nd April) The streets of Mevagissey are flooded after hours of heavy rain.
(20th May) A new astronomical observatory is to be built on St. Martin's in The Isles of Scilly after a £59,000 government grant was secured and planning permission was granted for the site, owned by the Duchy of Cornwall. There is no virtually no light pollution on the islands.
(20th May) Flames were seen shooting from the Atlantic Hotel at Newquay. Five fire engines were used to deal with the fire but nobody was hurt.
(25th May) A thirty foot tall ceramic structure weighing in at twenty tonnes and inspired by the shape of cyanobacteria, one of the world's smallest living beings, has opened to the public at the Eden Project.
(1st June) The Hall for Cornwall closes for a major refurbishment.
(13th June) Three homes were destroyed after a large fire swept through a social housing complex in Truro.
(15th June) A 7th century piece of slate inscribed with ancient letters was found in Tintagel Castle.
(13th July) A derelict hotel in Newquay caught fire, nobody was hurt.
(3rd August) Charles Rogers of The Penrose Estate dies aged 62, apparently without an heir.
(20th August) A baby boy (Torran) was born mid-flight 1,400 feet up on the way to hospital in a coastguard helicopter over Penzance. Emergency crews received a call on Saturday night to urgently assist a woman who had gone into labour while visiting the Isles of Scilly.
(12th September) Cornwall Council has voted to add an official apostrophe to "Land's End". Clarification on the punctuation was needed because of proposed changes to electoral boundaries that left some council ward areas needing new names.
(19th September) Two Sea King military helicopters have completed their final farewell flypast, starting from RNAS Culdrose, after nearly 50 years of service. The two aircraft of 849 Naval Air Squadron will now be retired. They are being replaced by a new radar system on Merlin Mark 2 helicopters.
(11th October) The popular attraction Screech Owl Sanctuary is put up for sale as the current owners wish to retire.
(12th October) Storm Callum brings 75mph winds and heavy rain across Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly.
(October) Holywell Bay Fun Park closes for re-development into holiday lodges.
(6th November) Drilling work is begun near Redruth on what may become the first deep geothermal power plant in the UK.
(22nd November) Flights between Newquay Airport and London will switch from Gatwick Airport to Heathrow Airport from April, it has been announced.
(23rd November) A house at Coverack caught fire when it was struck twice by lightning.
(15th December) Heavy day long rain from Storm Deirdre causes flooding across many parts of Cornwall and forced the Eden Project to close for most of the day.
(18th December) The 16,000-tonne Russian cargo ship 'Kuzma Minin' ran aground off Gyllyngvase Beach in Falmouth. Three harbour tugs and a lifeboat were able to tow the ship off the beach.
(4th January) A large fire broke out in a garage at Redruth. 70 fire-fighters were required on scene to control and extinguish the flames.
(31st January) After hours of heavy rain which then turned to snow, many roads became impassable. Hundreds of motorists were stranded all night on the counties roads. Many on Bodmin Moor made their way to the Jamaica Inn at Bolventor for emergency accommodation.
(6th February) The Cornish author Rosamunde Pilcher dies aged 94.
(25th February) A major fire destroyed the Fisherman's Arms pub in Newlyn. Four people had to be taken to hospital and their dog also died in the blaze.
(22nd March) It was announced that the 2020 Tour of Britain cycle race will begin in Cornwall. 120 riders will start in Penzance and finish in Bodmin with organisers hoping for 180,000 spectators. Independent economic reports estimate the event will generate more than £3 million of extra spending in the county.
(3rd April) Direct flights four times daily begin from Newquay to Heathrow.
(13th April) Firefighters tackle major pub fire in Padstow.
(15th April) A new lifeguard visitor centre has opened at Fistral beach, Newquay to teach vital skills to keep people safe in the sea.
(15th May) Seven of Cornwall's beaches are awarded blue flag status.
(21st May) Jordan Adlard Rogers inherits The Penrose Estate after a DNA test proved he was the heir to the estate.
(28th May) The beach cafe at Maenporth, near Falmouth caught fire and was completely gutted, but nobody was hurt.
(6th June) HRH Princess Alexandra visits the Royal Cornwall Show.
(11th June) The government has agreed to give £47 million to help build a road to serve a proposed new town in Cornwall. Sites on the outskirts of Truro have planning permission for thousands of new homes as well as schools, supermarkets and a new stadium. Cornwall Council said the new development could cater for up to 8,000 residents.
(28th June) Gale force winds blast across Cornwall bringing down many trees and blowing the roof from a football stand at Illogan, near Redruth.
(3rd July) Archaeologists digging near a Roman fort near Calstock have unearthed remains of a mine and a Roman road.
(14th July) A giant jellyfish was spotted off Falmouth by Lizzie Daly, a biologist with Wild Ocean Week. The creature was as big as her body.
(15th July) HRH The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall start their three day visit to Cornwall with a trip to Mevagissey, Boscastle and the Eden Project. The next day they went to the Ginsters factory at Callington and the Duchy Nursery at Lostwithiel.
(26th July) HRH The Princess Royal visits maternity services at Royal Cornwall Hospital in Truro.
(30th July) A fire caused considerable damage at the White Hart Hotel in Launceston, but nobody was hurt.
(9th August) Cornwall is hit by an earthquake of 2.2 magnitude in the Helston area. Also bad weather and gale force winds bring down many trees and cause many events to be cancelled including the Boardmasters Festival at Newquay.
(11th August) Tintagel Castle's new £4 million, 229 foot bridge opens after delays due to bad weather.
(19th August) Prime Minister Boris Johnson visits Treliske Hospital in Truro.
(28th August) The Scillonian III breaks down off Land's End when both its engines failed, it had to be towed back to Penzance. The repairs took five days to complete which left many holiday makers stranded for days.
(8th September) Marjorie Netta Blamey MBE, an English painter and illustrator from Sri Lanka, dies at her home in St. Germans aged 101.
(2nd November) The whole of Cornwall is hit by 80mph winds and heavy rain bringing down many trees and causing some flooding.
(26th November) Jo Swinson, leader of the Liberal party visits St. Agnes as part of her general election campaign.
(27th November) Prime Minister Boris Johnson visits the hospitals in Penzance and Truro, then continues on to Roddas Creamery, Healeys Cider Farm and Goonhilly before ending up at Falmouth. On the same day Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn also visited Falmouth.
(9th Decenber) Cornwall was battered by 73mph winds from Storm Atiyah. There were many blocked roads as a result of fallen trees. In Bude, a road was closed after part of a Sainsbury's supermarket roof came off.
(12th December) Jamie Oliver's restaurant 'Fifteen' at Watergate Bay closes leaving 100 people out of work.
(19th December) Heavy rain floods over fifty shops and homes in Hayle.
(11th January) A World War Two Lancaster Bomber is being re-built in Newquay. One of the few remaining Lancaster Bombers is being re-built from spares so it can be exhibited to the public. The parts are being gathered from across the world to reconstruct the 1943 aircraft.
(13th January) Storm Brendan brought heavy rain and gale force winds to Cornwall.
(16th January) Flybe announced that it will switch its Newquay to Heathrow flights to Gatwick in March.
(31st January) The United Kingdom leaves the European Union.
(3rd February) Cornwall's most successful movie 'Bait', which was made in Newlyn has won a BAFTA.
(9th February) Storm Ciara hits Cornwall with storm force winds and heavy rain which bought down many trees and caused much damage.
(14th February) A 63 foot long fin whale was beached on rocks just south of the Helford Estuary. The animal was in poor condition and died soon after.
(16th February) Storm Dennis lashed Cornwall with more heavy rain and strong winds bringing down more trees, causing power cuts.
(3rd March) Harry Billinge a 94 year old from St. Austell and a D-Day veteran, was given MBE for all his fund-raising efforts.
(6th March) HRH Prince Charles make a one day visit to Newquay.
(16th March) In response to the Coronavirus Pandemic, Prime Minister Boris Johnson made an announcement advising against all non-essential travel and social contact, suggesting people work from home where possible and avoid venues such as pubs, restaurants, and theatres. On 20th March, the government announced that all leisure establishments such as pubs and gyms were to close as soon as possible, and promised to pay up to 80% of workers' wages to a limit of £2,500 per month to prevent unemployment in the crisis. Many businesses across Cornwall (and the rest of the UK) are now closed until the threat is over.
(23rd March) 1st National Lockdown Begins
(1st April) The new Cornwall Air Ambulance AW169 helicopter has gone into active service, taking off on its first lifesaving missions in Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. The people of Cornwall have raised an amazing £2.8m to make this possible.
(20th April) St. Ives is voted Britain's best Seaside Resort.
(1st May) All businesses including schools, hotels, holiday parks, tourist attractions, pubs and restaurants are still closed due to the pandemic.
(1st June) All businesses including schools, hotels, holiday parks, tourist attractions, pubs and restaurants are still closed due to the pandemic, making this the longest shut-down in history.
(4th July) Most businesses including schools, hotels, holiday parks, tourist attractions, pubs and restaurants are allowed to open again but must maintain social distancing to prevent the transmission of the Coronavirus Pandemic.
(8th July) A serious fire occurred at at the former Carclaze Infants School, near St. Austell. Fire engines from all over Cornwall were called out in the early hours to tackle the fire which gutted the historic building.
(20th July) HRH The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall start their three day visit to Cornwall, firstly going to see the new Cornwall Air Ambulance at Newquay. Later they went on to see the new footbridge at Tintagel Castle. The pair also made an appearance at Mevagissey after recent flooding.
(21st July) HRH The Duke and Duchess of Cornwall make a visit to St. Austell Healthcare, at the Wheal Northey Centre. Later they arrived at Treverbyn Community Hall, in Stenalees, where they were received by the Lord Lieutenant of Cornwall, Colonel Edward Bolitho. Charles and Camilla also attended a garden party celebrating Ginsters' 50th anniversary at the factory in Callington, followed by engagements in Tavistock and Lostwithiel.
(29th July) Labour leader Sir Keir Starmer visits Falmouth to give support for local businesses.
(14th August) Three people were hurt in a kitchen explosion at a bar on the waterfront in St. Ives.
(19th August) The 32 foot long vessel, Dynamite, was washed up against the promenade in Penzance. The sailor on board, who was due to be sailing to the Caribbean, was described as very shaken but unhurt.
(21st August) Storm Ellen brings high winds and heavy rain to Cornwall.
(25th August) Storm Francis brings even more high winds and heavy rain to Cornwall.
(11th September) A kayaker has an encounter with a 30 foot Minke Whale five miles of the coast at Fowey.
(30th September) Cornwall Council has stepped in to provide six million pounds to the operator of Cornwall's Leisure Centres so that they can all re-open within two weeks.
(1st October) Bodmin Jail opens its new eight and a half million pound visitor attraction 'The Dark Walk' allowing for a more impressive experience.
(7th October) Ninety-five-year-old Harry Billinge MBE, D-Day veteran has had a high-speed train named after him at Penzance station in honour of his bravery and fund-raising work.
(3rd November) Two people were swept into the sea at Mullion Cove. They were rescued in conditions that were at the limit of what was possible by the lifeboat and coastguards. The two were winched aboard a coastguard helicopter and taken to the Royal Cornwall Hospital at Truro were they later died.
(3rd November) Cornwall Air Ambulance features in a new TV series about their work across the county.
(5th November) 2nd National Lockdown Begins
(9th November) Newquay Airport has temporarily closed with all scheduled flights to and from the airport suspended due to the impact of the second Covid lockdown.
(5th December) A major fire broke out among the shops on St. Ives seafront. Crews from at least seven stations in Cornwall rushed to the scene, closing off the area around Lifeboat Hill.
(9th December) Covid 19 vaccinations begin at Treliske Hospital in Truro.
(4th January) 3rd National Lockdown Begins
(17th January) Cornwall has been chosen to host the G7 summit in June 2021 at Carbis bay near St. Ives. The £50 million economic boost for the region includes an increase in future tourism.
(7th February) A man has died following an incident on a fishing boat fifty miles off the Isles of Scilly in which another crew member was injured. The Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) confirmed the vessel was a beam trawler called The 'Cornishman', which is now back in Newlyn.
(12th February) Part of Charlestown Harbour wall collapsed following strong winds and adverse weather conditions.
(21st February) A beaver has been spotted on the bank of the River Fal on the Tregothnan Estate near Truro. It is thought to be the first in the county sighted in the wild since the creatures' reintroduction.
(8th March) Most schools across Cornwall return to normal after the lockdown.
(6th April) A Cornwall nature reserve near St. Just has been devastated by 120-acre gorse fire.
(9th April) Buckingham Palace announce that HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh has died aged 99.
(5th May) Penzance dry dock is to close by the end of May after nearly 190 years of operation.
(7th May) Orca killer whales are spotted off the west coast of Cornwall, near the Minack Theatre.
(21st May) An Arctic Walrus was spotted off the coast at Padstow.
(June 8th) Prime Minister Boris Johnson announces three new 'Town Deals' for Cornwall, in the week of the G7. Three new funding deals for Penzance, St. Ives and Camborne, worth a total of £65m will begin 'a major drive to restore Cornwall's renowned natural environment.
(10th June) President Biden arrives at Newquay airport for the G7 Summit.
(11th June) The World Leaders start talks at the G7 summit at Carbis Bay, near St. Ives.
(11th June) HRH The Queen, the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall and the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge all attended The Eden Project for a banquet along with the leaders from the G7 Summit.
(12th and 13th June) The G7 talks continue at Carbis Bay, near St. Ives to a close and during the evening they have a barbecue on the beach, while the Red Arrows do a flypast and musicians perform sea shanties.
(30th July) 75mph winds from Storm Evert caused much damage across Cornwall and The Isles of Scilly. Coastguards and lifeboats were called to many incidents, and fallen trees were reported from across the county.
(30th July) HRH The Princess Royal visited Wheal Martyn Clay Works to celebrate and officially open the museum’s new facilities. These improvements and facilities were created as part of Wheal Martyn’s ‘Clay Works’ project, with a major grant from The National Lottery Heritage Fund.
(13th August) Firefighters from across Cornwall and Devon have battled a major fire at a hotel in Bude. Nobody was hurt but the building was destroyed.
(14th September) A 'Massive' transatlantic data cable was landed on beach in Bude.
(13th October) The Hall for Cornwall re-opens after a £26 million refurbishment.
Ancient Sites in Cornwall 1497 The Cornish Rebellion Cornish Stannary (Tin) Law
The Civil War in Cornwall The Duchy of Cornwall Cornwall's Patron Saints
Famous Cornish People Notable Cornish Families Mining in Cornwall